Unformatted text preview: 1 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Intuitive Guide to Principles of Communications
www.complextoreal.com Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1
The first Phase Lock Loop (PLL) were proposed by French scientist de Bellescize in
1932 who is also credited with being the inventor of coherent demodulation. Phaselocked loops have many different applications and come to communications systems
from the heritage of control and vibration theory where they are used to describe freebody behavior of mechanical systems. In communication systems PLL are used for
1.
2.
3.
4. Carrier synchronization
Carrier recovery
Frequency division and multiplication
Demodulation The first PLLs were analog but since the 70’s integrated circuits have been available to
perform the same functions on a chip. These are called digital PLLs. There are basically
three classes of PLLs.
1. The linear or analog PLL (LPLL)
2. The digital PLL (DPLL)
3. Alldigital PLL (ADPLL)
The conceptual basis behind each of these is the same and they are all specified by the
same standard parameters such as loop bandwidth, damping factor etc. and we will look
at what all these mean.
A PLL has three core components. They are
1. Phase Detector (PD) or the multiplier
2. The Loop filter (LF)
3. Voltage controlled Oscillator or VCO
The Phase Detector
In simple terms, the phase detector is a multiplier. A gain value is also associated with it
which we will call, Km.
Let’s start with two sinusoids, s1(t) and s2(t). Both have same frequency but are phase
shifted by 900. Now multiple these two signals. www.complextoreal.com 2 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 s 1(t) s3(t) x
s2(t) Figure 1 – Detecting the phase by multiplying two sinusoids
We have set the phase of these signals as a variable. Note that s2 is a cosine hence is 900
shifted from s1. s3 (t ) = s1 (t ) s2 (t ) s1 (t ) = A1 sin [ wt + φ1 (t ) ] s2 (t ) = A2 cos [ wt + φ2 (t ) ]
The output of the multiplier is
s3 (t ) = K m A1 A2 sin [ wt + φ1 (t )] cos [ wt + φ2 (t )] where Kd is the gain of the multiplier. With a little trigonometric manipulation, we can
put this equation in a form which is far more illuminating.
K d A1 A2
sin [φ1 (t )  φ2 (t )] +
2
K d A1 A2
sin [ 2ωt + φ1 (t ) + φ2 (t )]
2 s3 (t ) = (1) In this form, we see that the multiplier signal consists of two parts, the first one (in blue)
is function of only the phase difference of the two signals, and the second (underlined)
term is at a frequency which is twice the signal frequency (note the 2wt term) plus the
sum of the two phases.
We can use this equation to develop the PLL by recognizing that the output signal of the
multiplier is a function of the phase difference of the two input signals. This is useful
information and we can use it to synchronize the two signals. The second part of Eq. (1)
at twice the frequency can be discarded by filtering it out since it does not offer anything
we need. www.complextoreal.com 3 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Figure 2  Signal s1 or the forcing signal Figure 3  Signal s2, note 90 degree shift Figure 4 – FFT of input signal. It has just one peak at the signal frequency of 1 Hz. www.complextoreal.com 4 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Figure 5 – Signal s3, the signal out of the multiplier. Note that its average amplitude
is 0 and it seems to be of higher frequency than the original signals s1 and s2. The FFT of the multiplier signal s3 consists of two pulses, one at dc since the phase
difference is not a function of the frequency and the second at twice the signal frequency
as we can see in Figure 6. Figure 6 – FFT of the signal out of the multiplier has two peaks, one at dc which is
the phase difference between the two signals and the unwanted term at twice
frequency. Loop filter  Getting rid of the unwanted term by filtering www.complextoreal.com 5 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Now add a low pass filter at the output of the multiplier signal. Its bandwidth should be
quite small so it both knocks out noise and the unwanted doublefrequency term. Multiplier
s 1(t) x
s2(t) Lowpass filter
s3(t) s e(t) Signal source
Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator Figure 7 – Filter the multiplier signal to get rid of the doublefrequency term. The
filter removes these terms which have no useful information. The following figures show the output of the LPF, as the phase difference is varied.
When there is no phase difference (we are starting with 90 phase difference which is
required to make this whole thing work.), then the signal out of the LPF is just the first
part of Eq. (1). We call this part the error signal (also called the control signal.) se (t ) = kd A1 A2
sin [φ1 (t )  φ2 (t )]
2 (2) If phase difference is 0 degrees (actually 90) then we would expect the signal to be zero,
which is the desired and the lockedstate of the PLL. If the phase between the two signals
(s1 and s2) varies from that, then, we would expect the filtered s3 signal to change as we
see in the figures below.
The steadystate value of the signals below comes from Eq (2). In the examples below,
A1, A2 and Km are all set to 1.0., so at a phase difference of π / 2 , we would expect the
signal amplitude to be .5 and this is exactly what you will in Figure 13. Figure 8  Delta phase = 10 deg, Steadystate value = .078 www.complextoreal.com Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 6 Figure 9  Delta phase = 20 deg, Steadystate value = .163 Figure 10  Delta phase = 30 deg, Steadystate value = .243 Figure 11  Delta phase = 45 deg, Steadystate value = .348 www.complextoreal.com 7 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Figure 12  Delta phase = 70 deg, Steadystate value = .467 Figure 13  Delta phase = 90 deg, Steadystate value = .500 Plotting the steadystate dc value in the figures above against the delta phase difference
over the whole 360 degrees, we get the following picture. When the phase difference is 0,
180 and 360 degrees, the error signal amplitude is 0. The amplitude is maximum at phase
difference of 90 and 270 degrees. The response is not linear and has a sinusoidal shape.
This exactly what was predicted by Eq. (2). 1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0.4
0.6
0.8 Phase difference, degrees 1 Figure 14 – The error signal amplitude vs. the phase difference detected As we can see the amplitude of the error signal is directly related the phase error. If there
is a sudden phase shift of say 45 degrees at the input then the error signal will go from 0
amplitude to .248 volts over a certain period of time.
Now let’s see what the PLL does with this error signal and how it synchs up with the
incoming signal.
Voltagecontrolled Oscillator – a dynamically changing frequency response Now we bring in the last player on the stage. The error signal provides us an indication of
what is happening to the input phase. We want the error signal to have zero amplitude
and we can do that only by changing the phase of signal s2 to match the phase of signal
s1. VCO which we use to produce the signal allows us to do that.
www.complextoreal.com 8 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 As its name explains, VCO produces a periodic signal, the frequency of which changes
based on a control signal applied externally. If the error signal is zero then, the VCO
produces just its quiescent frequency (center frequency). But if the error signal is
something other than zero, then it responds by changing its operating frequency.
A constant of K0 represents the sensitivity of the VCO. It represents the change in the
instantaneous frequency of the VCO as a function of the error signal amplitude such that
KO = dωi
dv The signal out of the VCO is given by
s2 (t ) = A2 cos(ωct + φ2 (t ))
The units of K0 are Hertz per volts. Given a certain input voltage, it will produce a
change in the output signal frequency by the following relationship. ωout = ωc + K ov (t )
where ωc is its center or operating frequency. So if K = 5000 Hz/volt, then a input of .1
volt would produce a new output frequency of ωc + 500 Hz.
s 2(t) Voltage
Controlled
Oscillator se(t) We know that for a periodic signal p(t), its frequency in Hz is equal to the rate of change
of phase in 2π segments, or
ft (t ) = 1 d φ i (t )
2π dt and conversely, phase is the integral of the frequency over a certain period of time.
t φi (t ) = 2π ∫ f i (t )dt
0 (3) These relationships apply to all periodic signals, even those that are nonsinusoidal.
These two ways of writing the argument of the cosine are equivalent. www.complextoreal.com 9 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 p(t ) = cos(2π ft )
t = cos(2π ∫ f (t )dt )
0 We can now write the phase of the feedback signal as
t φ2 (t ) = 2π K o ∫ se (t )dt
0 (4) = 2π K O se (t )t So as long as the error signal has a nonzero amplitude, the phase of the VCO signal will
keep on increasing until such time as it is decreased to zero. Substitute Eq (4) into Eq (2)
to get,
km A1 A2
sin [φ1 (t )  φ2 (t )]
2
t k AA
se (t ) = m 1 2 sin φ1 (t )  2π K O ∫ se (t ) 2 0
se (t ) = (5) The equation of se can be linearlized by making the following assumption.
sin(θ ) ≈ θ for small θ sin [φ1 (t )  φ2 (t )] ≈ [φ1 (t )  φ2 (t ) ]
Now we can rewrite Eq. (5) by removing the sine function.
km A1 A2
[φ1 (t )  φ2 (t )]
2
t km A1 A2 se (t ) =
φ1 (t )  2π K O ∫ se (t ) 2
0 k AA
= m 1 2 [φ1 (t ) − 2π K O Set ]
2
se (t ) = (6) In the above equation Se is the amplitude of se(t) at time t.
Let’s say that the input signal changes by 10 degrees. This causes the error signal
to slowly increase in amplitude from 0 to .1. At time t, the frequency of the signal
produced by the VCO increases by K0Se, where Se is the instantaneous amplitude of the
error signal and time T is sampling time. www.complextoreal.com Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 10 As long as the error signal is present, the phase keeps changing linearly. However, as the
phase of the signal out of the VCO changes, the new difference in phase decreases and
the error signal amplitude decreases at the next goaround. This decreases the phase
change further until the error signal amplitude has gone to zero. This in a nutshell is how
a PLL works. Figure 15 – Error signal Figure 16  Resulting signal out of the VCO Figure 15 shows a signal with fluctuating error signal. At every large error signal
amplitude, there is a large change in the phase of the VCO signal, these changes continue
to decrease in response to the error signal amplitude until the signal has smoothed out and
synchronized with the incoming signal.
Now lets’ take a look at the total picture. www.complextoreal.com 11 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Multiplier
s in(t) Lowpass filter
s3(t) x KL Km s2(t) Ko sout (t) s e(t) VCO Figure 17 – PLL with its three components This may not be obvious but the PLL is kind of an adaptive filter. The algorithms and
parameters used in PLL analysis are similar to those used for filters, such Bode plot, 3dB
bandwidth and poles and roots. However, there is one big difference; the PLL has a fairly
large gain. The gain of the loop is very easily computed. It is just the product of all the
component gains.
LoopGain = K d K LPF K O
Kd – the gain of the phase detector (also multiplier)
KL – the gain of the low pass filter
KO – the gain of the VCO
Transfer function of a PLL PLLs are described by transfer functions similar to filters. Before we delve further into
transfer functions which are a necessity in describing PLLs, we briefly go over the
Laplace transform which is used in the description of filtering systems such as this.
The Fourier transform of a signal f(t) is defined by
F (ω ) = +∞ ∫ f (t ) e − jωt dt −∞ and can be written for shorthand purposes as
F
→
f (t ) ← F (ω ) Fourier transform is a special case of the Laplace transform. We generalize the Fourier
transform by setting the jw term in ejwt equal to a complex variable s. s = jω
We rewrite the Fourier transform equation as F ( s) = +∞ ∫ f (t ) e − st dt −∞ www.complextoreal.com 12 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 This is the Laplace transform equation. The Laplace transform is a more general form of
the Fourier transform; here we decompose the signal not into harmonic signals but into
family of exponentials of the form est.
Laplace representation is used extensively in describing filters since the loopback
function of the filters make them in general nonlinear and Fourier transform formulation
does not work well. We can write Laplace transform in shorthand as
F(s) = L{f(t)}
and show the transform pairs as L
f (t ) ← F ( s)
→ Without going into the mechanics, let me state some transform pairs that we will be
using.
d f (t )
L
← s F ( s )
→
dt
d n f (t )
L
← s n F ( s )
→
2.
dt 1. t 3. g (t ) = ∫ L
f (τ )dτ ←
→ −∞ F (s)
s Knowing these three relationships, we are now ready to write the transfer function of the
PLL but first just the VCO.
The VCO input signal is the error signal se(t). The output signal is Vout(t). The gain of the
VCO is KO . The frequency of the VCO in response to the error signal is ωout (t ) = ωc + KO se (t )
since the phase is
t φi (t ) = 2π ∫ f i (t )dt
0 = ωct + K 0 se (t )t (7) The time domain signal that is output by the VCO is a sinusoid of the from www.complextoreal.com 13 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 t2 Vout (t ) = Ao cos ωct + K o ∫ se (t )dt t1 (8) The Laplace transform of the phase out is given by Eq. (4)
t2 Φ out (t ) = K o ∫ se (t )dt (9) t1 K
Φ out ( s ) = 0 se (s )
s
Now we write the Laplace transform of the input/output relationship of the VCO. Φ out (s ) K o
=
se ( s )
s (10) Moving on to the complete PLL, we can now write its transfer equation by noting what is
happening to the signal and using the appropriate Laplace transform.
The filters used in PLLs are generally called leadlag filters. (Actually all filters are leadlag filters.) Here is an elementary structure for a IIR filter. The gains are shown by letter
G and are called coefficients of the filter.
Lead part Lag part
y G0 x x1
x2 G1 G3 G2 G4 y1
y1 Figure 19 – Generic representation of a filter We can write the response of this filter by taking a note of what’s on the lead side. So the
numerator of the filter is equal to
G0 + G1 x (n − 1) + G2 x(n − 2)
and the denominator is
1 − G3 y (n − 1) − G4 y (n − 2)
we can write the frequency response of this filter by setting each delay as frequency shift.
x ( n − k ) = e − j kωt www.complextoreal.com 14 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 G0 e − j 0ω + G1 e − j1ω + G2 e − j 2ω
H (ω ) =
1 − G3e − j1ω − G4 e − j 2ω (11) This is kind of a rough looking equation but easy to understand if you know where it is
coming from. (For best explanation of how IIR and FIR filters work, see Rick Lyons
book “Understanding Digital Signal Processing” best book written on the subject. His
downtoearth approach was an inspiration to me and has helped me to formulate many of
my ideas on how DSP should be taught.)
We can show this equation in the sdomain by making the substitution, s = jw H ( s) = G0 + G1 s + G2 s 2
1 − G3 s − G4 s 2 (12) Now look at this representation. It also has a leading section and a lagging section. The
lagging section is the feedback part.
Lead
In Σ Error P f(s) Out Lag P b(s) Figure 20 – Generic representation of a feedback system The transfer function of this system can be written as
H ( s) = Pf ( s )
Out
=
In 1 + Pf (s ) Pb ( s ) (13) where index f stands for forward part and b for backward part. We can alternately draw
the PLL block diagram as follows. www.complextoreal.com 15 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 PD gain LPF gain
In Σ LPF KM Error F(s) KL VCO gain VCO integration
Out 1/s Kv Figure 21 – Linear zed sdomain representation of a PLL The transfer function of all the components in the top forward of the loop, Pf(s) is just the
multiplication all the gains and the filter response and then division by s to represent the
integration in the VCO. The gain of the feed back part is one.
Pf (s ) = K d K L F ( s) KO
s set
K = K d K L KO
Plug this into above equation, we get, the equation of the Closedloop Transfer function
of the PLL.
H ( s) = K F (s )
s + K F (s) 14 where the total loop gain is K and F(s) is the Laplace transform of the filter response f(t).
The transfer function of the error can be obtained similarly.
Error
1
=
In
1 + Pf ( s ) Pb ( s ) 15 Here again Pb(f) is equal to one and Pf(s) is equal to KF(s)/s. H e ( s) = Φ e ( s)
Φ in ( s ) = s
s + K F (s) 16 The actual transfer function depends on the type of loop filter we are using. Three filter
types that are used in PLLs are
1. Passive filters leadlag filters
2. Active leadlag filters
3. Integrate and lead filters www.complextoreal.com 16 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Most filters are passive in that they do not amplify the signal. An active filter is one that
provides amplification in addition to filtering. These types of filters are used in equalizers
and of course in PLLs where relative gains are important. The only difference between
an active and passive filter is that the gain of a passive filter is 1 or less where the gain of
an active filter is KL. Both filters have the same frequency response except for the linear
gain.
The frequency response of the active filter type 2 is given by
1 + sτ 1
1 + sτ 2 F ( s) = Now plug this into Eq (), the transfer function of the loop is
H ( s) = K F ( s)
s + K F (s) H ( s) = K (1 + sτ 2 )
τ 2 s + s(1 + Kτ 1 ) + K
2 17 About the order of PLL – The order of a PLL is specified by its transfer function. If
there is no filter, the PLL is called a first order PLL. The highest power of s in the
denominator is used as an indicator of the loop order. The transfer function below is for
a 2nd order loop. The loop transfer equation can be written in this fashion, ωn2 + 2 sξωn
H ( s) = 2
2
s + 2 sξωn + ωn 18 where ωn = K τ1 ξ= ωnτ 2
2 The transfer function of the error signal can be written as
H e ( s) = 1 − H ( s)
= s2
2
s 2 + 2 sξωn + ωn www.complextoreal.com 17 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Written this way, the system equation becomes equivalent to what is used in mechanical
engineering to describe nonlinear behavior of the massspringdamper systems. The
math is the same and so the terms have been retained and used in the analysis and design
of communication system design. Of course, it is nice for once to work with something
one can imagine such as a damping factor. There is precious little in communications that
is tangible.
The coefficient wn is called the natural frequency (not to be confused with carrier or
center frequency, it has nothing to do with that.). The natural frequency, wn , is a quality
of the response of the PLL. The quantity ξ , which is called the damping factor can be
used to examine the transient qualities of the loop. As in mechanical systems, if proper
damping factor is not used, the vibrations, error signal in our case, do out damp out and
the system becomes unstable. The filter is very important in the design of the PLL since
both the natural frequency and the damping factor are a factor of the filter response F(s).
In fact we can say that the design of PLL is almost entirely dependent on the design of
the loop filter.
Now let’s plot these transfer equations and since these are complex equations, we will
need to convert these to their magnitude response. And here how we do that. N ( s)
D( s ) H ( s) = ( Re al part of N (s) ) + (imaginary part of
2
( Re al part of D(s ) ) + (imaginary part of
2 H ( jω ) = N (s))2
D( s))2 For the closed loop transfer function, the magnitude is given using the above relationship
as
H ( jω ) = (w 2
n ωn4 + (2ξωnω )2 − ω 2 ) + (2ξωnω )2
2 The error transfer function is given by H ( jω ) = (w 2
n ω4 − ω 2 ) + (2ξωnω )2
2 www.complextoreal.com 18 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 Below there two transfer functions are plotted. These plots are called Bode plots. The yaxis is in dBs. The xaxis has been normalized by diving w by wn. You have seen these
in books, so what good are these plots? These plots do tell a story. And here is what it
says.
First of all, look at the magnitude of the loop transfer function. It looks sort of like the
frequency response of a filter. This is what I said earlier, the whole PLL acts like a filter.
Where F(s) was the transfer function of just the lowpass loop filter, this response
incompasses the other two loop components. The plot shows us how the loop will behave
in frequency domain. Figure 22 Frequency response of the PLL, xaxis is normalized frequency, the yaxis is Response in dBs. The curves are shown for various damping factors, ξ . Let me repeat again, the PLL is a filter. So the above graph is its frequency response. The
smaller damping factors give better rejection but they also have large transients. At w/wn
= 1.0, where the frequency is equal to the natural frequency, remember from your
vibrations class that at such point the oscillations become very large, which is just what
we are seeing in this graph. Larger factors have better behaved responses but they are
sluggish in acquisition and response. The optimum is turns out is the value of .707. Most
loops designed use this number as the target value of a good compromise between
acquisition time response and frequency response. What do we need this frequency
response for? Remember the double frequency term that we need to filter out, this
response does by keeping the loop bandwidth narrow. This has secondary benefits
because this also limits the noise. www.complextoreal.com Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 19 The PLL also has a 3dB bandwidth just as do all filters. This bandwidth is a function of
the damping factor. The 3db bandwidth for damping factor of .707 is app. 4 times the
natural frequency.
We want this cut off frequency to be small but not too small because otherwise it may
cutoff baseband information. Generally we want the loop bandwidth to be larger than the
largest baseband spectral frequency. If we are transmitting music, which varies from 300
to 30000 Hz, then we would want the loop bandwidth to be larger than 30000 Hz. The
most common value of loop bandwidth is 50K Hz. Figure 23 The frequency response of the error function, xaxis is normalized frequency,
w/wn,yaxis is in dBs.
This figure tells us what is happening to the error signal as a function of the loop
bandwidth. We want the error signal to be able to approach 0. So it is clear that we want
the bandwidth to be larger than the natural frequency. Smaller damping factors we can
see have larger fluctuations although we can see that they respond faster (the slope is
www.complextoreal.com 20 Unlocking the Phase Lock Loop  Part 1 larger for smaller frequencies.). The optimum is again damping factor of .707 which
reaches steady state at a loop bandwidth of about 2 times natural frequency.
References:
1. Phaselock Techniques, Floyd Gardener, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Edition
2. PhaseLocked Loop Circuit Design, Dan H. Wolaver, Prentice Hall, Ist Edition
3. PhaseLocked Loops: Design, Simulation, and Applications, Ronald E. Best, McGraw
Hill, 4th Edition
4. PhaseLock Basics, William Egan, Wiley Interscience, July 1998
______________________________________________________ Copyright 1998, 2002 Charan Langton
I can be contacted at
[email protected]
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