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Unformatted text preview: 1/11/2008 Development Over the Life Span Chapter 11 People lose about one-third of their brain onecells or neurons by late adulthood False False People lose very few neurons (only about 7%). The loss begins in middle adulthood (around age 30), not in old age 30), People become less susceptible to short-term shortillnesses, such as the common cold, as they age True This is attributed to an accumulation of antigens. However, older adults are more susceptible to lifelife-threatening ailments Reaction time generally becomes slower with age True True Reaction time declines with age 1 1/11/2008 Developmental psychology examine biological, physical, psychological, & behavioral changes as we age; guided by: Critical (range during which experiences must occur) & Sensitive (range Sensitive periods (optimal age for these experiences to take place) CrossCross-sectional designs (compare people of different ages at the same point in time • Advantages: quick • Disadvantages: different age groups grew up in different historical periods Longitudinal design (repeatedly test the same cohort as it grows older) Nature & nurture (influences of heredity & environment) Major Methods Continuity vs. discontinuity (progresses thru qualitatively different stages) Stability vs. change (characteristics) (characteristics) • Advantages: participants are their own control • Disadvantages: time consuming, sample may shrink; unique developmental experiences cannot be disentangled Major Major Methods Sequential design (combines cross-sectional & crosslongitudinal approaches by testing several cohorts at 1 point in time & then again when they are older; e.g. every 10 yrs) e.g. • Advantages: overcomes disadvantages of 1st two & is most comprehensive • Disadvantages: costliest & most time consuming 2 1/11/2008 Genetics & Sex Determination Three Stages 1st Germinal stage: 2 weeks of development; the stage: zygote becomes a mass of cells & attaches to the mother’s uterus Genetic female’s 23rd pair contains XX chromosomes; that of males has XY Y has the Testis Determining Factor (TDF) gene that triggers male development at 6-8 weeks of development (i.e. the testis) Once formed, the testis secretes androgens that continue to direct male-pattern development male- IF TDF is absent (XX combination), the testis does prenatal not form ►insufficient androgen at prenatal critical period ►female pattern organ development Embryonic stage: ►embryo; 2 thru 8 weeks after stage: (placenta, conception (placenta, umbilical cord, body parts, organs, heart develop) Fetus stage: muscles strengthen, other bodily stage: systems; by 24 w eyes open; by 27 w the fetus attains age of viability Environmental Influences Teratogens (external agents that cause abnormal prenatal development) Harmful chemicals & diseases can pass thru placenta (e.g. stress hormones, rubella, sexually transmitted diseases ►blindness, deafness, brain damage) Environmental toxins (e.g. mercury, lead, radiation, alcohol, nicotine, drugs,…) ► birth defects, FAS, low birth weight, cognitive impairments,.. 3 1/11/2008 The Amazing New Born Sensory capabilities & Perceptual preferences Reflexes & Learning Visual systems are immature (i.e. very near sighted); Can scan (i.e. Can environment (yet blurry vision) (yet Preferential looking procedure records how long they look at stimuli; they prefer complex patterns & mothers face vs. simple patterns, colors, & unfamiliar faces Reflexes (are automatic, inborn behaviors, that occur in response to specific stimuli); e.g. rooting reflex, e.g. sucking reflex ►both ↑ability to feed Multiple learning ways: Well developed sense of taste; respond to touch & human voice; distinguish odor • Habituate to non-threatening stimuli; non• Classically conditioned responses (eye blink to air-puff + tone) (eye air• Responses acquired thru operant conditioning (e.g. suck (e.g. Simple forms of learning start in the womb • Can imitate facial expressions plastic nipple to hear mother’s voice) Physical Development We grow with maturation (genetically programmed biological process that govern our growth) By 1st b-day, body weight triples What biological principles govern physical & motor development? • Cephalocaudal principle: tendency to grow from head to principle: foot direction • Proximodistal principle: development begins in principle: innermost parts of body & continues toward outermost (e.g. parts (e.g. fetus’ arms grow before hands) The Young Brain Newborn’s brain weight is only 25% of adult’s 25% By 6 months, it reaches 50% of its adult weight 50% Neural networks (forming basis for cognitive & motor skills) (forming develop rapidly Deep brain areas (basic for survival) mature fully 1st ; (basic cortex develop last By 5 yrs, brain size is almost 90% of adult size; & 90% development continues 4 1/11/2008 Environmental & Cultural Influences Severe malnutrition influences development (e.g. (e.g. Environmental & Cultural Influences Human development is based on 3 principles: stunts growth, brain development, & may cause death) Enriched environments & interaction with others enhance growth Importance of physical touch to growth Experience provides opportunities for skill (South development; lack of which hinders growth (South American Ache tribe don’t walk till 2 yrs) • Biology sets limits on environmental influences (e.g. toilet – training depends on maturity of nerve fibers controlling bladder) • Environmental influences can be powerful (e.g. influence of stimulating environments) • Biological & environmental influences interact (environment ►brain growth ►facilitates ability to learn & benefit from environmental experiences) Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stage Model Piaget’s Stage Model Cognitive development involves 2 processes: Assimilation (the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas); e.g. objects e.g. Children’s thinking changes qualitatively with age (& is different than adults) Personal experience & brain’s biological maturation influence cognitive development Children are natural born scientists seeking to understand world through schemas (organized patterns of thought & action; e.g. sucking, numnum) numnum) Cognitive development occurs when schemas become more complex are suckable ►apply sucking schema to new objects Accommodation (the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change because of disequilibrium); e.g. some objects are too big or e.g. taste bad 4 major stages of cognitive growth 5 1/11/2008 1. Sensorimotor Stage 0 – 2 yrs old Understand the world thru primarily sensory experiences & physical (motor) interactions with objects “Out of sight, out of mind” (3 mths) (3 mths) “Object permanence” (8 mths): object continues to exist permanence” (8 mths): even if not seen 1yr: acquire language; ↑ with age 2. Preoperational Stage Reflexes are earlier schemas; later explore & try End of 2 yrs planful thinkers (form simple concepts, solve (form They represent the world symbolically thru words & mental images, but do not yet understand basic mental operations & rules; 2 - 6/7 yrs Language ↑, think about past & present, can anticipate anticipate consequences of actions; symbolic thinking (e.g. make believe, pretend play) problems, communicate their thoughts) 2. Preoperational Stage Does not understand consrevation (basic {volume, properties of objects {volume, mass, or quantity} stay the same even though their outward appearance may change; e.g. tall/short jug) Display animism (attributing lifelike qualities to physical objects/natural events; e.g. sky is crying) Egocentrism (difficulty viewing the world from from someone else’s perspective ≠ selfishness) selfishness) 3. Concrete Operational Stage Can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects & situations; 7-12 yrs Concept of reversibility is grasped, display less centration, easily solve conservation problems Rigid types of thinking in hypothetical/abstract problems; e.g. 3rd 6 1/11/2008 4. Formal Operational Stage Children think logically & systematically about both concrete/abstract problems, form hypotheses, & test them in thoughtful ways; 11 yrs – adolescence Think more flexibly when tackling hypothetical problems; enjoy challenges (e.g. more creative in locating 3rd eye than 9yrs old) The The Social Context of Cognitive Development Assessing Piaget’s Theory: Stages, Ages, & Culture AcrossAcross-cultures, stages appear in same order Children may acquire many cognitive skills & concepts at an earlier stage BUT Cognitive development within each stage seem to proceed inconsistently Culture influences cognitive development (scientific/logical (scientific/logical thinking vs. interpersonal skills) Cognitive development is more complex & (path variable than Piaget proposed (path is not always the same) ►Neo-Piagetians Piagetians movement Vygotsky ► Zone of Proximal Development (Difference between what a child can do independently and what s/he can do with adult /advanced peers’ assistance) Why is it important? • It gives an idea about child’s capabilities (e.g. future independent performance) • We can move child ahead within the zone based on child’s biological maturation • Older siblings aid the process especially after age of 3 yrs yrs 7 1/11/2008 The Social Context of Cognitive Development InformationInformation-Processing Approaches Continuous and gradual Zone of Proximal Development: Difference between what a child can do independently and what they can do with adult /advanced peers’ assistance InformationInformation-Search Strategies: older children older search systematically better for relevant info Processing Speed, Attention, & Response Inhibition: improve with age and slow down at adolescence Working Memory & Long-Term Memory: Longimprove with age; use more strategies; recall more info to solve Metacognition: awareness of own cognitive awareness processes Understanding the Physical World Violation-ofViolation-of-expectation experiment attention Expose infants to “impossible vs. possible event” Measure duration of stare Does 2 -1 = 1 ? 8 1/11/2008 SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Understanding Mental States Theory of Mind: person’s beliefs about “mind” person’s & ability to understand others’ mental states (Piaget = 6/7; but reality = 4 yrs old) Early Emotions Infants can facially express emotions At 18 months, develop sense of self At 2, display pride, shame, & guilt Lying, deception, & distinguishing the difference between them is possible for 3-yr-olds yr Emotion Regulation: process by which we process evaluate & modify our emotional reactions Suck thumb/pacifier, turn head away, cling to caretaker/doll/teddy bear, fling objects away, smile, pout, throw tantrums, talk… Emotional Competence Attachment Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. Psychosocial Stages: different “crisis” over different how we view ourselves in relation to others & world Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0 – 1) (0 Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1 – 3) (1 Initiative vs. Guilt (3 – 5) (3 Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – puberty) (6 Imprinting: sudden biologically primed form sudden (critical of attachment (critical period) Attachment: strong emotional bond that strong develops between children and primary caregivers (sensitive period) (sensitive The Attachment Process: ClothCloth-covered vs. Bare-wire surrogate mother Bare1. Indiscriminate attachment behavior (0 – 3 months) 2. Discriminate attachment behavior (3 – 7 months) 3. Specific attachment behavior (>7 months) (>7 9 1/11/2008 Attachment Attachment Deprivation Stranger anxiety: distress over contact with distress unfamiliar people (6 -7 months) Separation anxiety: distress over being distress separated from primary caregiver (1 – 3 yrs) (May be adaptive) Types of attachment: “Securely attached” “Insecurely attached” “Anxious“Anxious-resistant” “Anxious avoidant” “Isolate” monkeys Raised w/o secure attachment to real, interactive caregiver produces long-term social longimpairment Victor, the “Wild Boy of Aveyron”, discovered at 12 Twin Boys in Czechoslovakia, discovered at 7 Infancy is SENSITIVE, not critical, period for initial attachment forms easily & facilitates subsequent development Gender Identity & Socialization Styles of Parenting Authoritative Indulgent Gender constancy: understanding that being understanding male or female is permanent part of person (6 – 7 yrs) Warmth Gender identity: sense of “femaleness” or sense “maleness” that becomes a central aspect of one’s personal identity (2 – 3 yrs) SexSex-role stereotypes: beliefs about beliefs characteristics & behaviors appropriate SexSex-typing: treating others differently based on treating gender Androgynous gender identity (adolescence) (adolescence) Hostility Authoritarian Neglectful 10 1/11/2008 Physical Development Adolescence Hypothalamus signals pituitary gland to increase hormonal secretions Primary sex characteristics Period of development & gradual transition between childhood & adulthood Secondary sex characteristics Ψ consequences of early maturation Puberty: period of rapid maturation where person period becomes capable of sexual reproduction Boys: positive body image, athletic success, popularity (but risk delinquent behavior) Girls: weight gain; social & sexual pressure, bodybodyconscious eating disorders, school problems, depression, anxiety Boys suffer LESS negative consequences Social-Emotional & Personality Emotional Development Development Cognitive Development Abstract reasoning and information processing The Search for Identity; Erikson: Social Thinking Adolescent Egocentrism: self-absorbed and selfdistorted view of one’s uniqueness & importance 1. Imaginary Audience Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 – 20) 20) Identity Status: Identity Diffusion (no crisis, concern, cynicism, or (no commitment) Foreclosure (committed by family/peers w/o crisis) (committed Moratorium (crisis unresolved yet) (crisis Identity Achievement (coherent set of values) Personal Fable 2. 5. “member of social group” “personal characteristic” “goals & values” 11 1/11/2008 Physical Development Adulthood Maximum muscle strength reached at 20 – 30 After 40, muscles weaker & less flexible: 40, Changes in Processing Speed & Memory Movements stiffer & slower Cognitive Development In Old Age Senile Dementia: dementia after age 65 Crystallized intelligence peaks at mid adulthood 75 – 89 yr-olds take longer to acquire new skills but retain yrintellectual capacity to learn Bones more brittle & ligaments hardened Fluid intelligence declines by late adulthood By 70: 70: Intellectual Changes Women’s fertility drops menopause People in midlife (42 yrs) only view themselves as (42 having FULLY attained adulthood Cognitive Development Visual acuity declines “Have you reached adulthood?” Basal metabolism slows down slows Older but Wiser? Wisdom: system of knowledge about meaning & conduct of life Wisdom rises steadily from 13 – 25 yrs, but then remains relatively stable through 75 Who maintains intellectual functioning most? AboveAbove-average education Cognitively stimulating jobs & personal activities Spouse with greater intellectual abilities Learning performance strategies Common causes: Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, Cretzfeldt-Jakob, high blood Cretzfeldtpressure, stroke But older adults (73) display superior social (73) reasoning Old age brings potential for wisdom potential for 12 1/11/2008 SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Social Clock: set of cultural norms, concerning optimal set age range for work, marriage, parenthood, & other life experiences Stages & Critical Events 6. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40 – 65) 65) 8. Intimacy vs. Isolation (20 – 40) 40) 7. Marriage & Family Integrity vs. Despair (> 65) (> 65) SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Establishing a Career 1. Growth Stage (initial impression; < mid-20s) mid-20s) 2. Establishment Stage (mid-20s – mid-40s) (mid-20s mid-40s) 4. Maintenance Stage (till late adulthood) (till 5. Decline Stage (less investment; retirement) (less BIRTH LEAVING REARING SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Exploration Stage (tentative ideas, education) (tentative 3. Marital Satisfaction declines over 1st few yrs & birth of declines 1st baby (U-shaped relation) (UMarried people experience greater subjective wellwellbeing Marital Satisfaction SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Married women experience greater interrole conflict interrole than than married men Midlife Crisis: Fact or Fiction? Between 40 – 45: mortality issues, and realization 45: the unfulfillment of dreams May be just a myth Happiness & life satisfaction do not decrease throughout adulthood People in their 40s do not experience any more or 40s less issues than those of other ages 13 1/11/2008 SocialSocial-Emotional & Personality Development Retirement & the Golden Years Regardless of age, adults who are working OR they prefer, retired because this is what they prefer, report higher life satisfaction & better physical & mental health Death & Dying 5 stages of coping with impending death 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course PSYC 202 taught by Professor Dialalawand during the Fall '07 term at American University of Beirut.

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