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Unformatted text preview: 1/11/2008 What is Personality? Personality traits: individual’s customary ways of responding to their world Personality: distinctive & relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, & acting that characterize person’s responses to life situations PERSONALITY THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Psychic Energy & Mental Events Instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which may be discharged directly/indirectly Conscious: current awareness Preconscious: unaware of at moment but can be recalled Unconscious: dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, & impulses 1 1/11/2008 FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY The Structure of Personality A. Id: innermost core of personality, only structure present at birth, & source of all psychic energy Pleasure principle: seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations & environmental realities B. Ego: has direct contact with reality & functions primarily at a conscious level Reality principle: testing reality to decide when & under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses & satisfy its needs C. Superego: moral arm of personality FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Ego Id Superego Conflict, Anxiety, & Defense When ego confronts threatening impulses, anxiety results; reduced by realistic coping OR Defense mechanisms: unconscious mental operations that deny or distort reality Repression: pushes anxiety-arousing impulses/memories into unconscious mind Sublimation: taboo impulses channeled into socially desirable & admirable behaviors Denial Rationalization Displacement Reaction Formation Intellectualization Projection 2 1/11/2008 FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Psychosexual Development FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Psychosexual Development 1. Oral Stage (infancy): FOOD Psychosexual Stages: id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies focus on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of body – erogenous zones Deprivations/indulgences Fixation: state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on particular psychic theme Regression: psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage Self-indulgence or dependency 2. Anal Stage (2 – 3): TOILET TRAINING Society’s 1st attempt to control a biological urge If harsh compulsion, over-cleanliness, orderliness, rigidity If lax messy, negative, dominant personality 3. Phallic Stage (4 – 5): SEXUAL ORGANS Castration anxiety Oedipus complex: conflictual love for mother vs. hostility toward father Electra complex: female counterpart 4. Latency Stage (6 – 12) 5. Genital Stage (>12) NEOANALYTIC & OBJECT RELATIONS APPROACH Neoanalytic theorists: psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking & developed their own theories (Alfred Adler, Karen NEOANALYTIC NEOANALYTIC & OBJECT RELATIONS APPROACH Neoanalytic theorists: Carl Jung Horney, Erik Erikson, Carl Jung) Personal Unconscious: based on life experiences Collective unconscious: memories accumulated throught entire history of human race Archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways Object relations theories: focus on images/mental representations that people form of themselves & other people as result of early experiences with caregivers Attachment theory 3 1/11/2008 THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL –HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE Phenomenology: emphasis on primacy of immediate experience Humanists Positive view of inherent dignity & goodness of human spirit, plus individual’s creative potential & inborn striving toward personal growth GEORGE KELLY’S PERSONAL PERSONAL CARL ROGER’S CONSTRUCT CONSTRUCT THEORY THEORY OF THE SELF Primary goal is to find personal meaning in world If unable uncertain & anxious Perception involves categorizing (≠ ways by ≠ people) Personal constructs: cognitive categories into which we sort persons & events in our lives individual differences Constructions are hypotheses not facts Forces within us, when not distorted/blocked, will direct us towards: Self-actualization: highest realization of human potential Fixed role therapy: discover consequences of construing situation in ≠ ways find more useful alternative to replace maladaptive hypotheses 4 1/11/2008 CARL ROGER’S CARL ROGER’S THEORY OF THE SELF THEORY OF THE SELF The Self: organized, consistent set of perceptions of & beliefs about oneself The Self: Inconsistency/incongruence threat/anxiety Need for self-consistency: absence of conflict among self-perceptions Need for congruence: consistency between selfperceptions & experience Well-adjusted people adaptively modify self-concept Others deny/distort experiences (attribute interpersonal difficulties to other’s shortcomings) To preserve self-concepts, people behave in ways to lead others to respond in self-confirming way CARL ROGER’S CARL ROGER’S THEORY OF THE SELF THEORY OF THE SELF The Need for Positive Self Regard: for acceptance, sympathy, & love from others Unconditional positive regard: communicates that person is inherently worthy of love, regardless of accomplishments/behavior (as from parents) Conditional positive regard is dependent on child’s behavior Need for positive self-regard: desire to feel good about ourselves Lack of unconditional positive regard from significant others Conditions of worth: dictate circumstances we approve/disapprove of ourselves (Freud “shoulds & musts”) Fully Functioning Persons: close to achieving self-actualization Don’t adopt artificial roles Sense of inner freedom, self-determination, & choice in direction of growth No fear of behaving spontaneously, freely, & creatively Free of conditions of worth accept inner & outer experiences without modifying them defensively 5 1/11/2008 THE SELF RESEARCH ON THE SELF Self-Verification & Self-Enhancement Motives Self-Esteem: how positively/negatively we feel about ourselves Stable over life span High self-esteem happier, fewer interpersonal problems, achieve more, less susceptible to social pressure, can form satisfying love relationships Poor self-esteem less likely to make selves better in face of perceived failures, more prone to Ψ problems, poor social relationships, & underachievements THE TRAIT PERSPECTIVE Mapping the Structure of Personality Self-verification: need to confirm self-concept Self-enhancement: strong & pervasive tendency to gain & preserve a positive self-image Selectively attend to & recall self-consistent info Seek out self-confirming relationships Attribute success to own abilities & effort, but failure to environmental factors Rate themselves as better than average View selves as improving over time, relative to others Self-serving biases Ψ well-being Low self-esteemers seek out positive feedback more Personality traits: relatively stable cognitive, emotional, & behavioral characteristics that establish individual identities & distinguish them from others (Dictionary contains17,953 words to describe personal traits) 6 1/11/2008 FACTOR ANALYSIS Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factors FACTOR ANALYSIS The Five Factor Model 16 basic behavior clusters 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) For individual & group differences “Big Five” OCEAN BUT 16PF better for prediction BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONALITY Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Big 5 with 6 subcategories NEO-PI I. EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH Evolutionary personality theory: origin of personality traits in adaptive demands of our species’ evolutionary history Adaptive demands: 5 basic Q’s in interaction: Is he dominant vs. passive/submissive? Is she agreeable/friendly vs. hostile/uncooperative 3. Can I count on him; is she dependable? 4. Is he sane vs. crazy? 5. How smart & quick to learn & adapt is she? Strategic pluralism: multiple—even contradictory— behavioral strategies might be adaptive in some envts & thus maintained thru natural selection 1. 2. 3 levels 7 1/11/2008 II. GENETICS Twin studies Jim twins 40 – 50 % variance III. NERVOUS SYSTEM Eysenck’s Extraversion-Stability Model III. NERVOUS SYSTEM Temperament: Building Blocks Individual differences in emotional & behavioral styles that appear EARLY in life, & assumed to have a biological basis Inhibited children: ↑ physiological arousal & stress hormone secretion to unfamiliar settings ↑ amygdala activity Extreme introverts ← chronically over-aroused Extreme extroverts ← chronically underaroused Unstable people ← hair-trigger NS BEHAVIORAL & SOCIAL– COGNITIVE THEORIES 8 1/11/2008 JULIAN ROTTER Humans are reactors to EXTERNAL events Pavlov, Watson, & Skinner Perceive, think, plan, interpret, predict, decide Social-cognitive theories: interaction of thinking human with a social envt that provides learning experiences EXPECTANCY X REINFORCEMENT VALUE Locus of control (internal-external): expectancy concerning degree of personal control we have in our lives generalized expectancy Reciprocal determinism: person, person’s behavior, & envt all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links ALBERT BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING & SELF-EFFICACY Self-efficacy: belief in ability to perform & achieve ALBERT BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING & SELF-EFFICACY Systematic Goal Setting: Internal self-determined, active, better grades, resistant to social influence, ↑ self-esteem & coping self-fulfilling prophecy “Whether you believe you can do something or you believe you can’t, you’re probably right” - Henry Ford Set behavioral (& measurable), not outcome, goals Set difficult but realistic goals Set positive, not negative, goals Set short-range & long-range goals Set definite time spans for achievement pecific easurable ction-oriented ealistic time-based 9 1/11/2008 WALTER MISCHEL & YUICHI SHODA WALTER MISCHEL & YUICHI SHODA COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE PERSONALITY SYSTEM Situation X “person” variables = differences CAPS: organized system of five variables that interact continuously with one another & with environment, generating distinctive patterns of behavior, that characterize person COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE PERSONALITY SYSTEM 1. Encodings & Personal Constructs 2. Expectancies & Beliefs 3. 4. 5. Reconciling Personality Coherence with Behavioral Inconsistency Interactions with multiple combinations (CAPS) Inconsistent behavior Behavior-outcome expectancies: “if-then” links Goals & Values Emotions Competencies & Self-Regulatory Processes Self-reinforcement processes: internal, selfadministered, rewards & punishments CULTURE, GENDER, & PERSONALITY Behavioral signatures: consistent ways of responding in particular classes of situations 10 1/11/2008 Unstated assumptions; norms; values; sex roles; habitual behavior styles Perception & behavior 1. 2. 3. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Complexity Tightness Individualistic & collectivistic cultures Gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of attributes & behaviors appropriate & expected for males & females INTERVIEWS BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT Structured interviews: set of specific Q’s administered to every participant standardized Unstructured interviews tailored to individual & situation Also look at how one responds, appearance & grooming, voice & speech patterns, content of statements, & facial expression & posture Limitations: 1. Influence of interviewer characteristics 2. Interviewee’s desire to cooperate, respond honestly, & report accurately : explicit coding system that contains behavioral categories of interest Interjudge reliability Live settings or videotapes 11 1/11/2008 REMOTE BEHAVIOR SAMPLING : collect self-reported samples of behavior from respondents as they live their daily lives Tiny computerized device pages respondents randomly Rate or record current thoughts, feelings or behaviors Report aspects of situation PROJECTIVE TESTS PERSONALITY SCALES 1. 2. 3. Collect data from many people simultaneously All people respond to same items Ease of scoring NEO-PI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI2) profile PROJECTIVE TESTS : present subjects with ambiguous stimuli & ask for some interpretation of them Rorschach test: 10 inkblots What does this look like? What might it be? What specific feature makes it seem that way? Unreliability among examiners Scoring system with coding categories & criteria 12 1/11/2008 PROJECTIVE TESTS PROJECTIVE TESTS Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): series of pictures derived from paintings, drawings, & magazine illustrations PROJECTIVE TESTS What is happening? Who are the people involved? What has led to this situation? What is being thought, felt, wanted, & by whom? What will happen? How will the story turn out? PROJECTIVE TESTS 13 ...
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