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Unformatted text preview: ONE-SCHOOL.NET Short Notes: Form 5 Chemistry Rate or Reaction Calculation Rate of Reaction (Average Rate) Rates of reaction = Quantity change of reactants/products Total time for the reaction If the quantity change is immeasurable Rates of reaction = 1 Total time for the reaction Find the Rate From a Graph Average Rate Rates At an Instant The rate of reaction is equal to the slope of the graph The rate of reaction at an instant, t, is equal to the of quantity against time. slope of tangent at that instant. Rate of Reaction = Δ(Product) Δ(Time) http://www.one-school.net/notes.html Rate of Reaction = 1 Δ(Product) Δ(Time) ONE-SCHOOL.NET Chemical Reaction Precipitation of Sulphur 2HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) ⎯→ 2NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l) Na2S2O3: Sodium thiosulphate Notes: 1. Yellow precipitate (sulphur) is formed. 2. The reaction is slow. Potassium Dichromate (VI) with Ethanedioic Acid Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 3C2O42- ⎯→ 6CO2 + 7H2O + 2Cr3+ Notes: 1. In the reaction, the orange colour of the solution turns into green. Cr2O72-: dichromate(VI) ion (Orange) C2O42-: ethanedioate ion (Colourless) Cr3+ : Chromium(III) ion (green) Potassium Manganate(VII) with Ethanedioic Acid 2MnO4- + 16H+ + 5C2O42- ⎯→ 10CO2 + 8H2O + 2Mn2+ Notes: 1. Mn2+ is colourless 2. In the reaction, the purple colour of the solution turns into colourless. MnO4-: Manganate(VII) ion (Purple) Mn2+: Manganese(II) ion colourless Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 2H2O2 - ⎯→ 2H2O + O2 Catalyst: manganese(IV) oxide(MnO2), Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), silver (Ag) Haber Process (Manufacture Ammonia) N2 + 3H2 ⎯→ 2NH3 (More detail in Form 4 Chapter 9) Contact Process(Manufacture Sulphuric Acid) 2SO2 + O2 ⎯→ 2SO3 (More detail in Form 4 Chapter 9) http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 2 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Ostwald Process (Manufacture Nitric Acid) Stage 1 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g) Notes: 1. Temperature = 900oC 2. Pressure = 4-10 atm 3. Catalyse = Platinum (Pt) Stage 2 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) Dissolve in water 3NO2(g) + H2O(l) → 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g) Carbon Compound Alkane Alkane Substitution Reaction (Halogenation) Combustion Complete Combustion Incomplete Combustion Combustion Complete combustion C2H6 + 7 O2 ⎯⎯→ 2CO2 + 3H2O 2 Incomplete combustion 5 O2 ⎯⎯→ 2CO + 3H2O 2 3 C2H6 + O2 ⎯⎯→ 2C + 3H2O 2 C2H6 + http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 3 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Substitution Reaction Alkene Alkane Alcohol Craking Alkene Combustion Complete Combustion Dehydration Addition Reaction + Bromine/Chlorine + Potassium Manganate(VII) + Hydrogen + Hydrogen Halide + Steam Incomplete Combustion Preparation of Alkene Cracking of Alkane 2C4H10 ⎯→ CH4 + C2H4 + C2H6 + C3H6 Dehydration of Alchohol C2H5OH + ⎯⎯→ C2H4 + H2O http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 4 Polymerization ONE-SCHOOL.NET Combustion: Complete combustion: C2H4 + 3O2 ⎯→ 2CO2 + 2H2O Incomplete combustion C2H4 + 2O2 ⎯→ 2CO + 2H2O C2H4 + O2 ⎯→ 2C + 2H2O Addition Reaction: + Bromine: + Potassium Manganate(VII): + Hydrohen: (Catalyst: platinum/nickel) + Hydrogen Halide: + Steam (H2O): (Catalyst: phosphoric acid; Temperature: 300oC; Pressure: 60atm) Polymerization (Catalyst: oxygen; Temperature: 200oC; Pressure: 1200atm) http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 5 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Alcohol Carbohydrate Alkene Alcohol fermentation Combustion dehydration Addition + Sodium Oxidation (+K2CrO7/KMnO4) Preparation of alchohol Fermentation of Carbohydrate (Glucose) C6H12O6 ⎯⎯→ 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Addition of Alkene C2H4 + H2O ⎯⎯→ C2H5OH [Catalyst:Phosphoric acid; Temperature:300oC; Pressure: 60atm ] or C2H4 + H2SO4 ⎯⎯→ CH3CH2OSO3H CH3CH2OSO3H + H2O ⎯⎯→ CH3CH2OH + H2SO4 Combustion of Alcohol C2H5OH + 3O2 ⎯⎯→ 2CO2 + 3H2O Dehydration of Alcohol C2H5OH + ⎯⎯→ C2H4 + H2O Alcohol + Sodium 2C2H5OH + 2Na ⎯⎯→ 2C2H5ONa + H2 Oxidation of Alcohol C2H5OH + 2[O] ⎯⎯→ CH3COOH + H2O http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 6 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Carboxylic Acid Alchohol Oxidation Aldehydes Carboxylic acid Oxidation + alkali + oxide base + Metal + Metal carbonate + Alchohol Salt + H2O Salt + H2O Salt + H2 Salt + CO2 + H2O Esther Preparation of Carboxylic acid Oxidation of Alcohol C2H5OH + 2[O] ⎯⎯→ CH3COOH + H2O Oxidation of Aldehyde C2H6O + [O] ⎯⎯→ CH3COOH Reaction Carboxylic Acid + Alkali CH3COOH + NaOH ⎯⎯→ CH3COONa + H2O Carboxylic Acid + Metal Oxide 2CH3COOH + MgO ⎯⎯→ Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2O Carboxylic Acid + Metal 2CH3COOH + Mg ⎯⎯→ Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2 Carboxylic Acid + Metal Carbonate 2CH3COOH + CaCO3 ⎯⎯→ Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 +H2O Carboxylic Acid + Alchohol CH3COOH + C2H5OH ⎯⎯→ CH3COOC2H5 + H2O http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 7 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Summary of The Reaction http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 8 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Oxidation and Reduction Iron(II) to Iron(III) Oxidising agent: Chlorine or Bromine Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e Cl2 + 2e ⎯→ 2Cl− + 2+ 3+ 2Fe + Cl2 ⎯→ 2Fe + 2Cl + − Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e Br2 + 2e ⎯→ 2Br− 2Fe2+ + Br2 ⎯→ 2Fe3+ + 2Cl− Observation: 1. The green colour of Fe2+solution turns brown Observation: 1. The green colour of Fe2+ solution turn brown 2. The brown colour of bromine water turns into colourless. Oxidising agent: Potassium Permanganate(VII) Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e MnO4− + 8H+ + 5e ⎯⎯→ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe2+ + MnO4− + 8H+ ⎯→ 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O Observation: 1. The green colour of solution Fe2+ turns brown 2. The purple colour of the MnO4− solution turns into colourless Oxidising agent: Potassium Dichromate(VI) Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6e ⎯⎯→ 2Cr3+ + 7H2O + 6Fe2+ + MnO4− + 8H+ ⎯→ 6Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O Observation: 1. The green colour of solution Fe2+ turns brown. 2. The orange colour of the Cr2O72- solution turns green. Oxidising agent: Hidrogen Peroxide Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e ⎯⎯→ 2H2O + 2Fe2+ + H2O2 + 2H+ ⎯→ 2Fe3+ + 2H2O Observation: 1. The green colour of solution Fe2+ turns brown Oxidising agent: Concentrated Nitric Acid Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e NO3- + 4H+ + 3e ⎯⎯→ NO + 2H2O + 3Fe2+ + NO3- + 4H+ ⎯→ 3Fe3+ + NO + 2H2O Observation: 1. The green colour of solution Fe2+ turns brown http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 9 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Iron(III) to Iron(II) Reducing Agent: More reactive Metal Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ Zn ⎯→ Zn2+ + 2e + 2Fe3+ + Zn ⎯→ 2Fe2+ + Zn2+ Observation: 1. The brown colour of the iron(III) solution turn green. 2. Zinc powder dissolve in the solution. Reducing Agent: Sulphur Dioxide Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ SO2 + 2H2O ⎯⎯→ SO42- + 4H+ + 2e + 2Fe3+ + SO2 + 2H2O ⎯→ 2Fe2+ + SO42- + 4H+ Observation: 1. The brown colour of the iron(III) solution turn green. Reducing Agent: Hydrogen Sulphide Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ H2S ⎯⎯→ 2H+ + S + 2e + 2Fe3+ + H2S ⎯→ 2Fe2+ + 2H+ + S Observation: 1. The brown colour of the iron(III) solution turn green. 2. Yellow precipitate forms in the solution. Reducing Agent: Sodium Sulphite Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ SO32- + H2O ⎯→ SO42- + 2H+ + 2e + 2Fe3+ + SO32- + H2O ⎯→ 2Fe2+ + SO42- + 2H+ Observation: 1. The brown colour of the iron(III) solution turn green. Reducing Agent: Tin(II) Chloride Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ Sn2+ ⎯⎯→ Sn4+ + 2e + 2Fe3+ + Sn2+ ⎯→ 2Fe2+ + Sn4+ Observation: 1. The brown colour of the iron(III) solution turn green. http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 10 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Displacement of Metal [A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive ion of metal from its compound.] Example: Mg + PbCl2 ⎯→ MgCl2 + Pb 3Zn + Fe2O3 ⎯→ 3ZnO + 2Fe Al + CuSO4 ⎯→ Al2(SO4)3 + Cu Electrochemical Series More electropositive ←⎯⎯⎯⎯ K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Ag Kalau Nak Cari Makanan Ada Zat Ferum Seperti Papaya Harus Cari di Argentina Reactivity Series More reactive ←⎯⎯⎯⎯ K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, H, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Ag Displacement of Halogen [A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halide from its compound.] Example: Cl2 + KBr ⎯→ KCl + Br2 Br2 + NaI ⎯→ NaBr + I2 F2 + KI ⎯→ KF + I2 Reactivity of Halogen More reactive ←⎯⎯⎯⎯ F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2 > At2 Colour of Halogen and Halide Halogen Colour in water Chlorine (Cl2) Pale Yellow Bromine (Br2) Brown/Orange/ Yellow Iodine (I2) Brown/Orange/ Yellow Colour in CCl4 Pale Yellow Brown/Orange/ Yellow Purple http://www.one-school.net/notes.html Halogen Chloride (Cl-) Bromide (Br-) Iodide (I-) 11 Colour in Colour water CCl4 Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless in ONE-SCHOOL.NET The Oxidising Agent and Reducing Agent Oxidising Agent (Reduction) Redusing Agent (Oxidation) Halogen Cl2 + 2e ⎯→ 2Cl− Br2 + 2e ⎯→ 2Br− I2 + 2e ⎯→ 2I− Metal Mg ⎯→ Mg2+ + 2e Zn ⎯→ Zn2+ + 2e Al ⎯→ Al3+ + 2e Metal Ion Mg2+ + 2e ⎯→ Mg Pb2+ + 2e ⎯→ Pb Sn2+ + 2e ⎯→ Sn Halide Ion 2Cl− ⎯→ Cl2 + 2e 2Br− ⎯→ Br2 + 2e 2I− ⎯→ I2 + 2e Fe3+ Fe3+ + e ⎯→ Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2+ ⎯→ Fe3+ + e Potassium Manganate(VII) MnO4− + 8H+ + 5e ⎯⎯→ Mn2+ + 4H2O Sulphur Dioxide SO2 + 2H2O ⎯⎯→ SO42- + 4H+ + 2e Potassium Dicromate(VI) Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6e ⎯⎯→ Hydrogen Sulphide H2S ⎯⎯→ 2H+ + S + 2e Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e ⎯⎯→ 3+ 2Cr + 7H2O Sodium Sulphite Aqueous SO32- + H2O ⎯⎯→ SO42- + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O Concentrated Nitric Acid NO3- + 4H+ + 3e ⎯⎯→ NO + 2H2O Tin(II) Chloride Aqueous Sn2+ ⎯⎯→ Sn4+ + 2e Rusting Step 1: Formation pf Ion Anode: Cathode: 2+ O2 + H2O ⎯→ 4OH- + 4e Fe ⎯→ Fe + 2e Step 2: Corrosion of Iron Fe2+ + 2OH- ⎯→ Fe(OH)2 Step 3: Formation of iron(III) hydroxide 4Fe(OH)2 + H2O + O2 ⎯→ 4Fe(OH)3 Step 4: Formation of Hydrated Iron(III) Oxide Fe(OH)3 ⎯→ Fe2O3⋅xH2O General Equation 4Fe + 3O2 + xH2O ⎯→ 2Fe2O3 xH2O http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 12 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Preparation of Oxygen Gas Decomposition of Potassium Manganate (VII) 2KMnO4 ⎯→ K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate (V) 2KClO3 ⎯→ 2KCl + 3O2 [Manganese(IV) Oxide as catalyst] Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate 2KNO3 ⎯→ 2KNO2 + O2 Extraction of Iron From Its Ore Production of Carbon Dioxide C + O2 ⎯→ CO2 Production of Carbon Monoxide CaCO3 ⎯→ CaO + CO Reduction of Iron Ore to Iron Upper Section of the Ballast Furnace Fe2O3 + 3CO ⎯→ 2Fe + 3CO2 Fe3O4 + 4 CO ⎯→ 3Fe + 4CO2 Lower Section of the Ballast Furnace Fe2O3 + 3C ⎯→ 2Fe + 3CO Fe3O4 + 4 C ⎯→ 3Fe + 4CO2 Removal of Impurities http://www.one-school.net/notes.html CaO + SiO2 ⎯→ CaSiO3 13 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Thermochemistry Calculation Heat of Reaction ΔH = Thermal Energy Change Number of Mole Thermal Energy Change Q = mcΔθ m = mass of solution = volume of solution c = specific heat capacity of solution Number of Mole For solution n= MV 1000 For gas (When volume is given) Volume of gas n= Molar volume of gas (22.4dm3 at stp / 24dm3 at rtp) For solid, liquid or gas ( When mass is given ) mass n= Molar mass (RAM/RMM) Chemical Reaction Exothermic Reaction Dissolving Alkali or Acid 2→ NaOH ⎯⎯⎯ Na + + OH HO 2→ H 2SO 4 ⎯⎯⎯ H + + SO 2 − 4 HO Dissolving of Anhydrous Salt 2→ CuSO4 ⎯⎯⎯ Cu 2 + + SO 2 − 4 HO 2 2→ Na 2CO3 ⎯⎯⎯ 2Na + + CO3 − HO http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 14 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Combustion of Fuel Example: Combustion of Carbon C + O2 ⎯→ CO2 Combustion of Hydrogen 2H2 + O2 ⎯→ 2H2O Combustion of Ethane C2H6 + Reaction of Acid Neutralisation 7 O2 ⎯→ 2CO2 + 3H2O 2 HCl + NaOH ⎯→ NaCl + H2O 2HNO3 + CaO ⎯→ Ca(NO3)2 + H2O Acid + Reactive Metal Acid + Carbonate Acid H2SO4 + Zn ⎯→ ZnSO4 + H2 HCl + CaCO3 ⎯→ CaCl2 + CO2 + HCl Displacement Reaction Zn + CuSO4 ⎯→ ZnSO4 + Cu Endothermic Reaction Dissolving of Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Sulphate 2→ NH 4Cl ⎯⎯⎯ NH + + Cl4 HO − 2→ NH 4 NO3 ⎯⎯⎯ NH + + NO3 4 HO 2→ (NH 4 )SO 4 ⎯⎯⎯ 2NH + + SO 2 − 4 4 HO Dissolving of Hydrated Salt CuSO4•xH2O ⎯→ Cu2+ + SO42- + xH2O Na2CO3•xH2O ⎯→ 2Na+ + CO32- + xH2O Thermal Decomposition of salts CaCO3 ⎯→ CaO + CO2 2Ca(NO3)2 ⎯→ 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2 http://www.one-school.net/notes.html 15 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Annonymous during the Spring '10 term at Sunway University College.

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