SPM-Physics-Formula-List-Form5

SPM-Physics-Formula-List-Form5 - ONE-SCHOOL.NET Physics...

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Unformatted text preview: ONE-SCHOOL.NET Physics Equation List :Form 5 Wave Oscillation 1 f= T f = frequency T = Period (Hz or s-1) (s) Displacement-Time Graph • Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from a Displacement-Time Graph Wave v= fλ v = velocity f = frequency λ = wavelength Displacement-Distance Graph λ = Wavelength http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html 1 (ms-1) (Hz or s-1) (m) ONE-SCHOOL.NET Interference λ = Wavelength ax λ= D a = Distance between the two wave sources x = Distance between two successive anti-node lines or node lines D = Distance from the wave sources to the plane where x is measured. Summary Electricity Sum of charge Q = ne Q = Charge n = number of charge particles e = charge of 1 particle Current Q I= t http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html Q = Charge I = Current t = time 2 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Potential Difference W V= Q V = potential difference, W = energy Q = charge (V or JC-1) (J) (C) V = potential difference, I = Current R = Resistance (V or JC-1) (A or Cs-1) (Ω) Ohm’s Law and Resistance V = IR Resistance R=( R = R1 + R2 1 1 1 + + ) −1 R1 R2 R3 Current Series Circuit Parallel Circuit The current flow into a resistor = the current flow inside the resistor = the current flows out from the The current flow into a parallel circuit is equal to the resistor sum of the current in each branches of the circuit. IA = IB = IC I = I1 + I2 Example If the resistance of the 2 resistors is the same, current will be divided equally to both of the resistor. In a series circuit, the current at any points of the circuit is the same. http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html 3 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Potential and Potential Difference Series Circuit Parallel Circuit The sum of the potential difference across individual resistor in between 2 points in a series circuit is equal to the potential difference across the two point. The potential difference across all the resistor in a parallel circuit is the same. V = V1 + V2 Example V = V1 = V2 Example Potential Difference and Electromotive Force If we assume that there is no internal resistance in the cell, the potential difference across the cell is equal to the e.m.f. of the cell. http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html 4 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance E = I (R + r) E = V + Ir or E = Electromotive Force r = internal resistance V = potential difference, I = Current R = Resistance (V) (Ω ) (V or JC-1) (A or Cs-1) (Ω) 2 methods to find the internal resistance and electromotive force a. Open Circuit – Close Circuit method Open Circuit Close Circuit In open circuit ( when the switch is off), the In close circuit ( when the switch is on), the voltmeter shows the reading of the e.m.f. voltmeter shows the reading of the potential difference across the cell. • With the presence of internal resistance, the potential difference across the cell is always less than the e.m.f.. b. Linear Graph method From the equation, E = V + Ir Therefore V = -rI + E Gradient od the grapf, m = -internal resistance Y intercept of the graph, c = electromotive force Electrical Energy E = QV E = Electrical Energy Q = charge V = potential difference http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html 5 (J) (C) (V or JC-1) ONE-SCHOOL.NET Electrical Power W P= t P = IV P=I R 2 V2 P= R (W or Js-1) (J) (s) (A) (V) (Ω) P = Power W = Work done/Energy change t = Time I = Current V = Potential difference R = Resistance Efficiency Electrical efficiency = output power × 100% input power Electromagnetism Root mean Square Value Vrms = Vp 2 Vrms = root mean square voltage Vp = peak voltage I rms = Ip 2 Irms = root mean square current Ip = peak current http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html 6 (V) (V) (A) (A) ONE-SCHOOL.NET Transformer Input And Output Of A Transformer Vs N =s Vp N p Vp = input (primary) potential difference Vs = output (secondary) potential difference Np = number of turns in primary coil Ns = number of turns in secondary coil (V) (V) Power In A Transformer Ideal Transformer V p × I p = Vs × I s Vp = input (primary) potential difference Vs = output (secondary) potential difference Ip = input (primary) current Is = output (secondary) current (V) (V) (A) (A) Non-ideal transformer Efficiency = Vs I s × 100% Vp I p Power Transmission 2Steps to find the energy/power loss in the cable a. Find the current in the cable by the equation P=IV 2 b. Find the Power lost in the cable by the equation P=I R. Electronic Energy change of electron in an electron gun Kinetic energy electrical potential = energy gain 12 mv = eV 2 2eV v= m http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html v = speed of electron V = potential difference across the electron gun e = charge of 1 electron m = mass of 1 electron 7 (ms-1) (V) (C) (kg) ONE-SCHOOL.NET Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Vertical scale = Y-gain control Horizontal scale = Time base Period = Time for 1 complete Oscillation Frequency, f= 1 T Transistor - Potential Divider Potential difference across resistor R1 = R1 ×V R1 + R2 Potential difference across resistor R2 = http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html R2 ×V R1 + R2 8 ONE-SCHOOL.NET Radioactivity A lpha decay A A− 4 4 Z X ⎯⎯→ Z − 2Y + 2 He B eta decay Y+ A A Z X ⎯⎯→ Z +1 1 0 0 −1 e 1 0 n→1 p + −1 e Gamma emission A A Z X ⎯⎯→ Z X +γ A = nucleon number Z = proton number Half-life 1 N = ( )n N0 2 N = Amount of radioisotope particles after nth half life. N0 = Initial amount of radioisotope particles. n = number of half life Nuclear Energy - Einstein Formula E = mc 2 m = mass change c = speed of light E = energy changed http://www.one-school.net/ notes.html (kg) (m s-1 ) (J) 9 ...
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