Document_from_Rahul - Chapter 1 THE LIVING WORLD Nature and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter- 1 THE LIVING WORLD Nature and Scope of Biology POINTS TO REMEMBER : Characteristics of Living Organisms : Growth, reproduction, metabolism, cellular organization, consciousness (ability to sense environment), self-replicating and self regulation. • • Reproduction and growth are NOT defining properties. Metabolism, cellular organization and consciousness are defining properties. Biodiversity : Term used to refer to the number of varieties of plant and animals on earth. Nomenclature: standardize the naming of living organism such that a particular organism is known by the name all over the world. Identification: nomenclature or naming is only possible when the organism is described correctly and we known to what organism the name is attached to. Need for classification: To organize the vast number of plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, studied and understood. Rules for Nomenclature: • • • • Latinized names are used, written in italics First word represents the genus, second word is species name. Printed in italics; if handwritten then underline separately. First word starts with capital letter while species name written in small letter. ICBN: International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (for giving scientific name to plants.) ICZN: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (for giving scientific name to animals.) Taxonomy: Study of principles and procedures of classification. Binomial Nomenclature: Given by Carolus Linnaeus. Each scientific name has two components - Generic name + Specific epithet. Systematics: It deals with classification of organisms based on their diversities and relationships among them. Term was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus who wrote ‘Systema Naturae’. Taxonomic Hierarchy: Arrangement of various steps (categories or taxa Species → Genus → Family → Order → Class → Phylum (for animals) /Division (for plants) Kingdom→ Species: All the members that can interbreed among themselves and can produce fertile offsprings are the members of same species. This is the bio-logical concept of species proposed by Mayer. Three Domains of Life: Proposed by Carl Woese in 1990 who also proposed the six kingdom classification for living organisms. The three Do-mains are Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya. Herbarium: Storehouse of dried, pressed and preserved plant specimen on sheets. Botanical Garden: Collection of living plants for reference. Taxonomical aids: Zoological Park (Places where wild animals are kept in protected environment.) • • • • • Keys (Used for identification of plant and animals on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.) Fauna: (Index to animal species found in a particular area) Flora (Index to plant species found in a particular area.) Manuals (Provide information for identification of name of species in an area.) Monograph (Contain information on one taxon.) _____________________________ 1. 2. Choose the correct pair (a) Sericulture – Fish (b) Silviculture – Silkworm (c) Apiculuture – Honeybee (d) Pisciculture – Forestry Which of the following pairs is mismatch (a) Pedology – Study of soil (b) Kinesiology – Study of fossils (c) Limnology – Study of fresh water ecosystem (d) Physiology – Study of processes and functions of life 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 'One gene one enzyme hyopthesis' was given by (a) Watson and Kornberg (b) Beadle and Tatum (c) Khorana and Nirenberg (d) Jacob and Monod Which of the following chemical characteristics is not common to all living beings (a) Type of protein present in the body (b) Similar triple code for amino acids (c) Energy is stored by high phosphate bonds (d) Ribosomes are the sites of protien synthesis Carbohydrates, the most abundant biomolecules on earth, are produced by (a) Some bacteria, algae and green plant cells (b) Fungi, algae and green plant cells (c) All bacteria, fungi and algae (d) Viruses, fungi and bacteria Existence of coal and petroleum may be detected with the study of (a) Bacteriology(b) Ecology (c) Palaeobotany (d) Economic botany Study of abnormal embryonic growth comes under (a) Teratology (b) Ontogeny (c) Morphogenesis (d) Parthenogenesis Binomial nomenclature was introduced by (a) Linnaeus (b) Darwin (c) Aristotle (d) De candolle The cell theory was proposed by (a) Metchnikoff (b) August Weismann (c) Sutton and Boveri (d) Antony van Leeuwenhoek (e) Schleiden and Schwann Who said 'all cells arise from pre-existing cells (a) Robert Hooke (b) Rudolf Virchow (c) Robert Brown (d) Antony van Leeuwenhoek 'One gene one enzyme hyopthesis' was given by (a) Watson and Kornberg (b) Beadle and Tatum (c) Khorana and Nirenberg (d) Jacob and Monod Which is the wrong combination (a) Landsteiner– Blood group (b) Chargaff and Davidson – A = T; G = C (c) Watson and Crick – DNA structure (d) None of the above DNA replication of semiconservative type was first demonstrated by (a) Watson and Crick (b) Taylor (c) Meselson and Stahl (d) Khorana Who appears to have first used the term 'ecology' in 1886 (a) F. Clement (b) E. Haeckel (c) E.J. Kormondy (d) I.G.S. Hilaire Who prepared germplasm theory against Lamarck's principle of use and disuse (a) Darwin (b) Nuttal (c) Weismann (d) de Vries The recapitulation theory or biogenetic law was proposed by (a) Weismann (b) Mendel (c) Ernst Haeckel (d) Von Baer Photophosphorylation was discovered by (a) Arnon D.I. (b) Hill R. (c) Calvin M. (d) Ruben and Kamen Christian Gram belongs to which country (a) Italy (b) Sweden (c) Denmark (d) Germany Who has developed the concept of phagocytosis in immunity (a) T.H. Huxley (b) Strasburger (c) Ernst Haeckel (d) E. Metchnikoff William Harvey is known for the discovery of 21. 22. (a) Digestion (b) Respiration (c) Blood clotting (d) Blood circulation Bordeaux mixture was discovered by (a) Bordeaux (b) David (c) Millardet (d) Harrison Which of the following was most likely to have been absent in free form in the primordial atmosphere at the time of origin of life (a) O2 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. (b) CH 4 (c) H 2 Aquaculture does not include (a) Pisces (b) Prawns (c) Silkworm (d) Shell fishery Which German physicst invented the electron microscope which won him 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics (a) Van't Hoff (b) Ernst Ruska (c) J.H.D Jensen (d) Eugene P. Wignes Who was the first Indian to be awarded the world food Prize in 1987 (a) B.R. Barwale (b) Anna Hazare (c) Sunderlal Bahuguna (d) M.S. Swaminathan The study of relationship between size and shape is called (a) Allopatric (b) Allelopathy (c) Allometry (d) Allogamy Study of behaviour of animals is called (a) Ethology (b) Parapsychology (c) Euphenics (d) Etiology The branch of biology which deals with the study of processes and functions of an organism is called (a) Hitology (b) Anatomy (c) Physiology (d) Entomology In his classic experiment on the formation of amino acids, Stanley Miller passed an electric discharge in a mixture of NH 3 (a) Steam, CH 4 , H 2 and (c) NH 3 , O2 , H 2 and steam (b) 38. CH 4 , CO2 , O2 and H 2 (d) CH 4 , H 2 , N 2 and steam Chitin is a structural polysaccharide and is polymerised form (a) Glucose (b) Ribose (c) Deoxyribose (d) None of these Which one of the following is an example of glycoprotein (a) Mucin (b) Lecithin (c) Casein (d) Haemoglobin Predominant form of lipid present in biomembranes (a) Free fatty acids (b) Cholesterol (c) Triacylglycerols (d) Phospholipids Anabolism is (a) Endergonic process (b) Exergonic process (c) Bidirectional process (d) Destructive process High energy phosphate bond is present in (a) ADP (b) Adenosine (c) AMP (d) Cyelic AMP Maintenance of internal favourable conditions, despite changes in external environment is (a) Entropy (b) Steady state (c) Enthalpy (d) Homeostasis Formation of which complex molecules was noticed by Urey and Miller when they subjected substances like NH 3 , CH 4 , H 2O etc. to electric discharge (a) Aquaregia (b) H 2 SO 4 (c) HCN 37. (d) NH 3 (d) Amino acids The virus is made up of (a) Protein (b) Nucleic acid (c) Both (a) and (b) The rabies virus consists of (a) Single stranded RNA (c) Single stranded DNA (d) None of the above (b) Double stranded RNA (d) Double stranded DNA 39. 40. 41. The genetic material in viruses is (a) Only RNA (b) Only DNA (c) RNA and DNA both (d) RNA or DNA i.e. one nucleic acid in a virus Temin worked on which virus (a) Herpesvirus (b) Rhinovirus (c) Retrovirus (d) Denguvirus The part of the virus which gives to it the hereditary feature, is (a) Capsid 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. (b) Capsomere (c) Nucleic acid (d) Nucleotide Which one of the following is the correct sequence of chemical substances produced during the origin of life on the earth (a) Water, amino acid, nucleic acid and enzyme (b) Glucose, amino acid, nucleic acid and protein (c) Amino acid, ammonium phosphate and nucleic acid (d) Ammonia, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid Our crops suffer from many diseases. Indicate the disease caused by virus (a) Potato mosaic (b) Citrus canker (c) Brown rot of potato (d) Leaf spot of cotton Banana bunchy top is caused by (a) Mycoplasma (b) Deutromycetes (c) Xanthomonas (d) Virus Which of the following was used by Hershey and Chase to prove that DNA is the chemical basis of heredity (a) TMV (b) Cauliflower mosaic virus (c) Dahlia mosaic virus (d) T2 bacteriophage In cyanophage, the genetic material is (a) RNA (b) DNA (c) RNA and DNA (d) Protein The Tobacco mosaic virus was crystallized for first time by (a) W.M. Stanley 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. (b) Louis Pasteur (c) Edward Jenner (d) Andre Lwoff The protein coat of virus is called (a) Capsid (b) Cosmid (c) Capsomere (d) Chromophore Which one of the following is the cause of yellow fever (a) Virus (b) Bacteria (c) Protozoa (d) None of these Which of the following relates to the determination of age of the tree by counting the number of annual rings (a) Dendrology (b) Cytochronology (c) Numerology (d) Dendrochronology The branch of biology dealing with the process how to improve the human race by selective breeding is (a) Euthenics (b) Obstetrics (c) Euphenics (d) Eugenics The diagram represents Miller's experiment. Choose the correct combination of labelling. A B D Mixture of gases C E (a) A-electrodes, B- NH 3 H 2 H 2O CH 4 , C-cold water, D-vacuum, E-U trap (b) A-electrodes, B- NH 4 H2 CO2 CH 3 , C-hot water, D-vacuum, E-U trap (c) A-electrodes, B- NH 3 H2O , C-hot water, D-tap, E-U trap (d) A-electrodes, B- NH 3 H2 H2O CH 4 , C-steam, D-vacuum, E-U trap (d) A-electrodes, B- NH 3 CH 4 ,C-cold water, D-sink, E-U trap. 53. 60. In order to check purity of honey and its source, pollen grains are being studied in a sample of honey. Such a study is called as (a) Palynology (b) Aeropalyonology (c) Melittopalynology (d) Latropalynology The branch which is associated with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is (a) Neurology (b) Psychiatry (c) Psychology (d) Neuropsychiatry The science that deals with rearing and proper management of forest trees is called as (a) Apiculture (b) Sericulture (c) Agriculture (d) Silviculture The study of the kind and diversity of organisms and the existing relationship among them is called (a) Systematics (b) Taxonomy (c) Classification (d) Nomenclature The government sponsored programme for growing trees in towns and cities for aesthetic value is called (a) Floriculture (b) Agroforestry (c) Social forestry (d) Urban forestry A pregnant woman who has done aminocentesis test finds an extra Barr body in her embryo. The syndrome which is likely to be associated with the embryois (a) Down syndrome (b) Patau syndrome (c) Edward syndrome (d) Klinefelter syndrome Which is correct about energy changes in living cells (a) First energy transfer, then energy transformation (b) First energy transformation, then energy transfer (c) Both occur discontinuously (d) Both occur continuously Which of the following statement its incorrect 61. (a) Life processes are consequences of reactions that in an organims (b) Living organisms are made of inorganic and organic compounds (c) Life comes form pre-existing life (d) Genes are not responsible for the stability or change ability of species 'Viroids' differ from 'viruses' in being 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. (a) Naked RNA molecules only (b) Naked DNA molecules only (c) Naked DNA packaged with viral genome (d) Satellite RNA packaged with viral genome 62. A substance (low molecular weight protein) produced by host cells in response to viral infection and protect other cells against further viral infection is (a) Phytotoxin (b) Antibody 63. (c) Interferon (d) Hormone A single stranded DNA molecule is the genetic material of bacteriophage (a) T2 (b) T4 (c) × 174 (d) 64. Which one of the following experiments suggests that simplest living organisms could not have originated spointaneously from non-living matter (a) Larvae could appear in decaying organic matter (b) MIcrobes did not appear in stored meat (c) Microbes appeared from unsterilized organic matter (d) Meat was not spoiled, when heated and kept sealed in a vessel. 65. Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is:- (a) Psychiatry 66. (b) Psychlology (c) Neurology Irrational fear of disease is(a) Algophobia (b) Mysophobia 67. (c) Pathophobia (d) Haematophobia In 1928, a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic. Scientist and antibiotics are: (a) Fleming-streptomycin (c) Waksman-pencicillin 68. 70. (d) Waksman - streptomycin (b) Myrmecology (c) Malacology (d) Myology The genetic material in viruses is (a) Only RNA (b) Only DNA (c) RNA and DNA both (d) RNA or DNA i.e. one nucleic acid in a virus Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high:(a) Thermal conductivity (c) Dielectric constant 71. (b) Fleming-pencillin Study of ants in:(a) Mycology 69. (d) Neuropsychiatry (b) Latent heat (d) All the above Homeostasis is:(a) Tendency to change with change in environment (b) Tendency to resist change (c) Disturbance in regulatory control 72. Cholesterol is(a) Monosaccharide 73. (b) Protein (c) Sterol (b) Homoestasis (c) Entropy Which is correct about energy changes in living cells (a) First energy transfer, then energy transformation (b) First energy transformation then energy transfer (c) Both occur disocontinuosly 75. 76. (d) Wax Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is:(a) Enthalpy 74. (d) None of these (d) Both occur continuously Which of the following is a DNA containing plant virus (a) Tobacco mosaic virus (b) Tomato mosaic virus (c) Cauliflower mosaic virus (d) Potato mosaic virus Helper virus is called (a) Perfect phage of virus (d) Steady state 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. (b) A defective phage which helps another defective phage (c) A latent phage (d) None of these Which is not true for viruses (a) Double stranded DNA (b) Double stranded RNA (c) Both DNA and RNA (d) Single stranded DNA Which of the following is true for viruses (a) They invariably contain DNA (b) They multiply only in host cell (c) They occur only inside bacteria (d) Their genetic material is RNA Bacteriophage is made up of (a) Carbon and nitrogen (b) DNA (c) Nucleoprotein (Nucleic acid + protein) (d) Protein only Which of the following viruses is devoid of protein coat with their body constituted by only RNA (a) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) (b) Potato spindle tuber virus (PSTV) (c) Polyoma virus (d) Mumps virus Tobacco mosaic Virus (TMV) has (a) A single stranded RNA molecule (b) A double stranded RNA molecule (c) A single stranded DNA molecule 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. (d) A double stranded DNA molecule Which of the following is not concerned with viruses (a) Viruses are made up of nucleic acid and proteins (b) Viruses multiply only in living host cell (c) Viruses can not use oxygen for respiration (d) Viruses can be grown in sugary liquid Read the following statements and select the correct option. Statement 1: Reproduction cannot be considered as defining property of living organisms. Statement 2: there are many living organisms which do not reproduce e.g., mules, worker bees, infertile human couples, etc. (a) Both statements 1 and 2 are true and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1. (b) Both statements 1 and 2 are true but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1. (c) Statement 1 is true and statement 2 is false. (d) Both statements 1 and 2 are false. Which of the following is the correct representation of organization levels in living beings? (a) Subcellular Cellular Individual Community Population (b) Atomic Molecular Subcellular Individual Community Population (c) Individual Population Organ system Tissue Cellular Molecular Atomic (d) Atomic Molecular Tissue Individual Ecosystem Community Match column-I with column-II and select the correct option from the codes given below. Column- I Column- II A. Binomial nomenclature (i) Hippocrates th B. The Darwin of the 20 century (ii) Earnst Mayr C. Father of Botany (iii) Linnaeus D. Father of medicine (iv) Theopharastus (a) A-(iii), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(i) (b) A-(iii), B-(ii), C-(i), D-(iv) (c) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv) (d) A-(ii), B-(iIi), C-(iv), D-(i) Select the correct classification for the given plant. 87. 88. 89. 90. Division Class Order Family (a) Plantae Angiospermae Asterales Asteraceae (b) Angiospermae Dicotyledonae Asterales Asteraceae (c) Angiospermae Dicotyledonae Polymoniales Compositae (d) Dicotyledonae Asteraceae Asterales Compositae Select the mismatched pair. (a) Panthera leo — Belongs to class Mammalia (b) Musca domestica — The common house lizard, a reptile (c) Entamoeba coil — Commonly occurring protozoan in human intestine (d) Solanum tuberosum — A dicotyledonous plant Which one of the following statements is incorrect? (a) indica, tuberosum and leo represent the specific epithets. (b) Physalia, Apis and Heiianthus represent the generic epithets. (c) Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae are the two classes of division Angiospermae. (d) Phylum Chordata is the largest phylum of kingdom Animalia. Study the following table which shows different organisms with their taxonomic categories. Common name Family Order Class Phylum/Division Man Housefly Mango Wheat Hominidae Muscidae C Poaceae Primata Diptera Sapindales Poales Mammalia B Dicotyledonae D A Arthropoda Angiospermae Angiospermae Select the correct option for A, B, C and D. A B C D (a) Chordat Insecta Anacardiaceae Monocotyledonae (b) Animalia Arachnida Anacardiaceae Monocotyledonae (c) Chordata Arachnida Polygonaceae Monocotyledonae (d) Non-chordata Insecta Anacardiaceae Dicotyledonae Which of the following options represents the correct classification for the given animal? (a) Phylum Chordata Class Vertebrata Order Chiroptera Family Felidae Genus Canis Species tigris 91. 92. 93. 94. (b) Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Panthera tigris (c) Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivoar Felidae Panthera tigris (d) Mammalia Felidae Carnivora Feliaceae Panthera leo Which of the following figures represents the correct method of pressing plants to form herbarium sheets? (a) Figure A as the plant parts are folded (b) Figure B as every plant part is unfolded (c) Both figure A and B as folding or unfolding does not matter (d) None of these Read the following statements regarding biological museums. (i) Biological museums are generally set up in educational institutes such as schools and colleges. (ii) Museums have collections of preserved plant and animal specimens for study and reference. (iii) Specimens are preserved in the containers or jars in preservative solutions. (iv) Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing and pinning. (v) Larger animals like birds and mammals are usually stuffed and preserved. (vi) Skeletons of mammals are not allowed to be kept in museums. Study the following statements regarding the preparation of herbarium sheets. (i) Plant should be collected in flowering stage. (ii) Every detail regarding the pla...
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