1. The first of the three basic concepts of experimental design is replication which is necessary in an experiment in order to provide a measure of experimental error and thus “to increase the precision of the estimate of the effects.” The second, randomization is a requirement for the statistical methods used to analyze the results of designed experiments and also minimized the effects of procedural bias and is achieved through the use of random numbers to determine the order of experimental trials and to assign the order for specific inputs. The third of the basic concepts of experimental design is the local control which refers to the use of blocks. Blocks are a “subdivision of the experimental space into relatively homogeneous experimental units between which the experimental error can be expected to be expected to be smaller than would be expected should a similar number of units be randomly located within the entire experimental space.” 2. These are eight steps in the Problem-Solving Process
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