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Test 5 Study Guide

Test 5 Study Guide - Musculoskeletal 1 First priority of an...

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Musculoskeletal 1. First priority of an open fracture is to clean it 2. Fat embolus : fat that enters the circulatory system after the fracture of a long bone 3. Turning a patient with a total knee replacement - use the log roll method and keep the body in alignment 4. Fractured hip (pelvis) - causes: lateral compression(getting hit by a car or falling on one side), anterior/posterior(direct contact with the spine or force transmitted from the femur, legs forced apart), and vertical sheer(a jump) 5. Trauma to soft tissue/inflammatory and degenerative disorders : a. Rheumatoid arthritis - most destructive, synovitits- inflammation of the synovial tissue, chronic progressive, systemic inflammatory disease, Tx is important to start early, the inflammatory process is seen in any organ or body system with connective tissue, has remissions and exacerbations, S/S - fatigue, weak, anorexia, weight loss 2-3 lbs, More common in the winter, bilateral, multiple joints, affecting upper extremities first. MED- salicylates (aspirin, bufferin), anti-inflammatory agents like gold salts b. DJD (joint replacement) : osteoarthritis- most common , deterioration of cartilage in the joints, wear and tear disease, joint spacing narrows and osteocytes(Spur), subluxation and joint deformities cause marked immobility, pain, muscle spasm, and inflammation, lack of exercise can contribute to DJD, causing sarcopenia(muscle loss) helps hold in place especially weight bearing, joint pain and stiffness (30 minutes after inactivity) may be single joint or unilateral, Dx: CT or MRI, sed. rate normal or elevated, Meds : NSAIDs, Acetaminophen, Cox-2 inhibiting med- Celebrex, Viox, Hyalgan, and Synvic are used for knee DJD; rest, local, systemic, psychological, positioning, weight control- decrease stress on joints, thermal Tx. c. Gout - imbalance in purine metabolism causing an increase in uric acid, the uric acid forms crystals that are deposited into joints, acute gout episode: severe pain, swelling, hot to the touch, caused by stress, alcohol, illness, or drug use; lasts 3-10 days; chronic tophaceous gout: not treated gout, permanent damage to joints and kidneys; medication
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