test4 - Bladder Cancer -Greatest risk factor: smoking...

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Bladder Cancer - Greatest risk factor : smoking -Major Symptom : Painless intermittent gross/microscopic hematuria Diagnosis : Cystoscopy Treatment : Surgery (all/part of bladder) → Urinary diversion (urostomy) -Ileal conduit (a piece of the ileum is turned into a bladder; ureters are placed in one end; the other end is brought to the abd. surface as a stoma) -May be impotent -Hourly _____________________ -Increase fluids: (______________-_______________ cc of fluid per day) -flush out conduit -Mucus normal? - Intestines always make mucus -Change appliance in a.m. (This is when output will be at its lowest). *It is OK to place a little piece of 4 X 4 inside stoma during skin care to absorb urine….just don’t forget to remove it. Prostate Cancer S/Sx of BPH: hesitancy, frequency, frequent infections, nocturia, urgency, dribbling. - Most common sign is gross painless hematuria -Digital rectal exam: prostate is hard/ nodular; this usually means prostate cancer. Diagnosis : 1. Lab work : - PSA increased: Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) - a protein that is only produced by the prostate; normal= <4 ng/ml - two or more 1st degree relative with prostate CA= start PSA by at least age 45 -alkaline phosphatase (if ↑ means bone metastasis) *prostate Cancer metastasizes to spine, sacrum, and pelvis -Increased acid phosphatase 2. Biopsy- * must be done for confirmation prior to surgery. - Treatment : 1. Watchful Waiting: in early stages (for asymptomatic, older adults with other illnesses) 2. Surgery: a. Radical Prostatectomy (done with localized prostate CA) -take out the prostate and the patient is cancer free -may have ED due to pudendol nerve damage -may have incontinence (Kegel) -patient is sterile -if there is no lymph node involvement, no ↑ in acid phosphatase, and no metastasis the surgeon will try to preserve the pudendol nerve b. Prostatectomy (TURP – transurethral resection of the prostate) -Usually reserved for BPH to help urine flow, not a cure for prostate CA; No incision -Most common complication?_________________________________________ -Is it normal to see bleeding after this surgery?_____________________________________
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test4 - Bladder Cancer -Greatest risk factor: smoking...

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