Maternity Final Study Guide

Maternity Final Study Guide - Maternity Study Guide...

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Maternity Study Guide Chapters 1-5 CHAPTER 1 will not be covered on the final exam. CHAPTER 2: review anatomy and physiology of female reproductive system; menstruation and hormones External structures: Mons pubis : fatty pad that lies over the anterior surface of the symphysis pubis. In post pubertal females, mons pubis is covered with coarse curly hair. Labia majora : two rounded folds of fatty tissue covered with skin that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis. It is a highly vascular structure. Protect inner valvular structures. Join to form a thin flat tissue called fourchette underneath vaginal opening at midline. Labia minora : two flat reddish folds of tissue visible when majora are separated. Anteriorly, fuse to form the prepuce (hoodlike covering of clitoris) and frenulum (fold of tissue under clitoris). Clitoris : located underneath the prepuce. Small structure composed of erectile tissue. Vaginal vestibule : almond shaped are enclosed by labia minora that contains openings to the urethra, skene glands, vagina, and Bartholin glands. Skene glands : located on each side of the urethra. Produce mucus for lubrication of vagina Bartholin glands : lie under constrictor muscles of the vagina. Located posteriorly on sides of vaginal opening. During sexual arousal, secrete clear mucus to lubricate vaginal introitus. Can develop infection- Bartholin cyst Perinum - area between fourchette and anus. Skin covered muscular area covering pelvic structures Internal Structures: Vagina : fibromuscular, collapsible tubular structure. Extends from vulva to uterus. Mucosal lining called rugae, allows expansion during childbirth. Vaginal secretions acidic (pH 4 to 5) decreases incidence of infection. Fornices: anterior, posterior, lateral pockets surrounding cervix at upper end of vagina. Uterus : muscular organ shaped like an upside down pear. Supported by 4 pairs of ligaments: cardinal, uterosacral, round, broad. Cul-de-sac of Douglas: deep pouch posterior to cervix. Divided into 2 parts: corpus (upper portion) and cervix (lower cylindrical portion). Fundus- dome shaped top of uterus (site where uterine tubes enter uterus). Isthmus- short, constricted portion separates corpus from cervix. The purpose of the uterus is reception, implantation, retention, and nutrition of the fertilized ovum and later the fetus during pregnancy and expulsion of the fetus during childbirth and menstruation. Cervix : mostly fibrous connective tissue and elastic tissue. Internal os is the opening between cavity and endocervical canal (canal that connects the uterine cavity to the vagina). The external os is the narrow opening between the endocervical canal and the vagina (smaller in nulligravid woman). It is firm (feels like the end of the nose). Outer cervix is squamous epithelium. Cervical canal is columnar epithelium and has glands that secrete mucus. The squamocolumnar junction is an area where two above types of cells meet just inside the cervical os. Most common site for neoplastic changes and the cells are obtained during Pap test.
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