Study patient teaching information regarding safe sexual practices.
The safest sex is abstinence from any sexual activity that transmit semen blood or
other body fluids or that allow for skin-to-skin contact; or involvement in a
mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. When these are
not options there are ways that may help minimize one’s risk. These may include
knowing your partner, reducing the number of partners, and avoiding the
exchange of body fluids. Also knowing the males opinion of the use of condoms
and making sure that condoms are used correctly and are not past the expiration
date and have been stored correctly.
Study the various causes/diagnosis and treatments/interventions for
Criteria used to evaluate are not universal but these are normally used:
the absence of both menarche and secondary sex characteristics by age 14
the absence of menses by age 16
a 6-month cessation of menses after a period of menstruation
The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. It can also result from
anatomic abnormalities, other endocrine disorders (hypo or hyper thyroidism),
Type 1 diabetes, medications, easting disorders, strenuous exercise, emotional
stress, and oral contraceptive use.
Counseling and education are primary interventions. They may also need
Study premenstrual syndrome (PMS). What are symptoms and interventions
associated with PMS.
The cause of PMS is unknown but it is said to be a group of physical and
emotional changes beginning in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. It resolves
with few days of onset of menses. It is always followed by a symptom free period
with recurrent symptoms. Symptoms include fluid retention, behavioral or
emotional changes, cravings, headache, fatigue, and backache. The interventions
associated with PMS include daily log of symptoms and time of symptoms, diet,
exercise, counseling, medications such as diuretics, NSAIDS, OCP, SSRI, and
progesterone; not smoking, and a diet low in sugar, salt, red meat, alcohol, and
What is dysmenorrhea (primary vs. secondary).
Dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation that is usually located in the suprapubic
area or lower abdomen and is characterized as sharp, cramping, gripping, or a dull
Primary appears 6-12 months after menarche and is most common in late
teens and early 20s. It is from the release of prostaglandins and the pain is at onset
and lasts 8-48 hours. It can be relieved with heat, back massages, biofeedback,
relaxation, meditation, exercise, nutrition, NSAIDS, and OCPs. Secondary is an
acquired menstrual pain that occurs typically after the age of 25. Pelvic pathology
is usually the cause but IUD usage can also be a cause. The treatment is to remove
the underlying cause.