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Maternity Test 3 Study Guide

Maternity Test 3 Study Guide - Maternity Test 3 Study Guide...

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Maternity Test 3 Study Guide Chapter 12: Therapeutic communication : Communication is important during all stages of labor. It is important for the patient to know they can ask questions at any stage to know what is occurring in their body and how long certain things last. Communication is also important so that you know how the patient is feeling and what they are experiencing so that you can help assist them better. It is also important to watch for nonverbal communication (such as squinting in pain even if she states her pain level is controlled) or to watch to see if some visitors need to be asked to return later to give the patient some alone time. Decreasing the patient’s stress in any way will help with labor. Being there for the patient is important because sometimes patients do not have a support person and need someone to help them even more. Narcotic analgesic : an analgesic is used to alleviate the sensation of pain and raises the threshold of pain but does not cause loss of consciousness. Demerol : is an opioid agonist that is used to relieve severe, persistent pain. It would be given IM < 1 hour or > 4 hours before delivery. Narcan : is an opioid antagonist that is used to reverse depressant effects. Need to inform patient that the pain will return but want to be cautious when giving to opioid- dependent women. Gate-control theory : this theory helps explain the way hypnosis and pain relief techniques taught in childbirth preparation classes work to relieve the pain of labor. According to this theory, pain sensations travel along sensory nerve pathways to the brain, but only a limited number of sensations, or messages, can travel through these nerve pathways at a time. In other words, the capacity of nerve pathways to transmit pain is reduced or completely blocked by using distraction techniques. Epidural block-nursing interventions : it is a type of regional anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic alone or in combination with a narcotic analgesic into the epidural space. The injection is made between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. Want to turn on side after administration and then alternate every 30 to 60 minutes. Hypotension would be treated with oxygen and want to have ephedrine available. Advantages include no pain and able to rest; disadvantages include a drop in blood pressure, makes it more difficult to push, and it may slow labor. Specific pain measures for different types of pain : According to the Lamaze method, pain is a conditioned response and women can be conditioned not to experience pain during labor. This is done by responding with controlled muscular relaxation and breathing patterns or concentrating on a focal point. There are also different types of paced breathing to help control pain during contractions including cleansing breaths (relaxed breath in through the nose and out through the mouth), slow-paced breathing
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(not less than half normal breathing rate- number of breaths per minute divided by two),
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