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maternity test 4 study guide

maternity test 4 study guide - 1 Review the biophysical...

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1. Review the biophysical, psychosocial, and socio-demographic factors associated with high risk pregnancies . They are all discussed in detail in Box 21-1 on page 651-652. Biophysica l factors include genetic considerations (defective genes, transmissible inherited disorders and chromosomal anomalies, multiple pregnancy, large fetal size, and ABO incompatibility), nutritional status (conditions that influence nutritional status include young age, three pregnancies in the last 2 years, tobacco, alcohol, drug use, inadequate dietary intake because of chronic illness or food fads, inadequate or excessive weight gain, and hematocrit value less than 33%), and medical and obstetric disorders (complications of current and past pregnancies, obstetric-related illnesses, and pregnancy losses). Psychosocial factors include smoking (risks include low birth weight infants, higher neonatal mortality rates, increased miscarriages, and increased incidence of premature rupture of membranes), caffeine (high intake has been related to a slight decrease in birth weight), alcohol (can result in fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, learning disabilities, and hyperactivity), drugs (can be teratogenic, cause metabolic disturbances, produce chemical effects, or cause depression or alteration of central nervous system function), and psychologic status (conditions such as specific intrapsychic disturbances and addictive lifestyles, a history of child or spouse abuse, inadequate support systems, family disruption or dissolution, maternal role changes or conflicts, noncompliance with cultural norms, unsafe cultural, ethnic, or religious practices, and situational crises). Socio-demographic factors include low income (leads to inadequate financial resources for food and prenatal care, poor general health, increased risk of medical complications of pregnancy, and greater prevalence of adverse environmental influences), lack of prenatal care (failure to diagnose and treat complication early arising from financial barriers or lack of access to care, long waits, lack of understanding of the need for early and continued care, and fear of the health care system), age (more complications are seen in young mothers which include anemia, preeclampsia, prolonged labor, and contracted pelvis and cephalopelvic disproportion. The risk to older mothers include number and spacing of previous pregnancies, genetic disposition of the parents, medical history, lifestyle, nutrition, and prenatal care. Medical conditions that are more likely to be experienced by older mothers that have an effect on pregnancies include hypertension, diabetes, extended labor, cesarean birth, placenta previa, abruptio placenta, and mortality), parity (the incidence of preeclampsia and dystocia is higher with a first birth), marital status (increased mortality and morbidity rate are for unmarried women), residence (prenatal care varies depending on geographical locations. Rural areas have less
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