CS31-10

CS31-10 - CS 31: Introduction to Computer Science I Topic...

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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-1 CS 31 : Introduction to Computer Science I Topic 10 C Strings
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-2 C Strings C Strings with C++ Strings The C Language is a proper subset of C++ All of C is included in C++ This includes the string capability in C The C++ string class also provides strings Both capabilities exist simultaneously in C++ The C++ string class supports C strings
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-3 C Strings Structure C Strings are stored in a character array A terminal character must follow all the actual characters of the string The terminator is the null character The null terminator is written '\0' One extra element is required in the array
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-4 C Strings C String Array A C String of n characters requires a character array of n+1 characters The first n characters of the array hold the actual characters of the string The last character of the array holds the null terminator There is no length identification
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-5 C Strings C String Examples char st1[10] = ""; char st1[10] = "+"; char st3[10] = "A String"; + 0 \0 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 ? 5 ? 6 ? 7 ? 8 ? 9 \0 0 ? 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 ? 5 ? 6 ? 7 ? 8 ? 9 A 0 sp 1 S 2 t 3 r 4 i 5 n 6 g 7 \0 8 ? 9
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-6 C Strings C String Examples char st1[10] = "All array"; char st1[10] = "Full array"; This is not a C String! There is no null terminator at the end F 0 u 1 l 2 l 3 sp 4 a 5 r 6 r 7 a 8 y 9 A 0 l 1 l 2 sp 3 a 4 r 5 r 6 a 7 y 8 \0 9
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-7 C Strings String Literals String literals or string constants are any set of valid characters enclosed by " and " String literals are always C Strings
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-8 C Strings String Literal Example char st[] = "Literal"; This is a C String! It has the required number of elements It has a null terminator at the end L 0 i 1 t 2 e 3 r 4 a 5 l 6 \0 7
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CS 31: Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-9 C Strings Converting to a C++ String The C++ string operator = will accept a C string on the right side No libraries other than the C++ string library are required
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Introduction To CS I 9/2009 John A. Rohr All Rights JAR 10-10 C Strings Converting to a C++ String char st1[10] = "String"; string st2; st2 = st1; st2 is the C++ string "String" S 0 t 1 r 2 i 3 n 4 g 5 \0 6 ? 7 ? 8 ? 9
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CS31-10 - CS 31: Introduction to Computer Science I Topic...

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