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Unit 2 - Unit 2 Chapter 4 Anxiety Disorders Nature of...

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Unit 2 Chapter 4 Anxiety Disorders Nature of anxiety and fear o Fear The present-oriented mood state Something in the environment that causes a threat o Anxiety The future-oriented mood state Being concerned about something in the future From normal to disordered anxiety and fear o Characteristics of anxiety disorders Pervasive (across situations) and persistent (long lasting) symptoms of anxiety and fear Involve excessive avoidance and escape Cause clinically significant distress and impairment Panic attacks o What is a panic attack Fight or flight Blood goes to all major muscles Breathing changes-hyperventilating Liver lets off sugar Senses change Body misfires when there is no danger. Will have some of the same responses as the fight of flight response o Subtypes
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Situationally bound panic attacks Not out of the blue Each and every time you come in contact with a certain thing you will get a panic attack o Phobias Unexpected Out of the blue to the person o Person can’t identify o First panic attack is normally uncued Situationally predisposed Chances are greater you will have a panic attack in a certain situation o Biological contributions to anxiety and panic Genetic vulneralbility See slides o Amygdale and hippocampus big in anxiety disorders o Psychological contributions Psychoanalytic view Anxiety involves reactivation of an infantile fear situation Behavioral view Anxiety and fear are learned responses Cognitive view Catastrophic thinking and appraisals play a role Early childhood Uncontrollability and unpredictability Social contributions Stressful life events trigger vulnerabilities
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o An integrated model Triple vulnerability model See book General biological General---- ------ Common processes: the problem of comorbidity About half of patients have two or more secondary diagnoses Most will be another anxiety diagnoses o Generalized anxiety disorder Excessive uncontrollable anxious apprehension and worry Strong, persistent anxiety Persists for 6 months or more Somatic symptoms differ from panic Muscle tension Fatigue Affects 4% of the general population Females out number males 2:1 Onset is often insidious beginning in early adulthood Gradually sets in Wont be able to give you specific dates Very prevalent among the elderly Very common around retirement Tends to run in families Treatment
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Generally weak treatment o Benzodiazepines- mild sedatives/tranquilizers o CBT-cognitive behavioral therapy Short run drugs and therapy are equal, in the long run therapy is better o Panic disorder with and without Agoraphobia Agoraphobia:
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