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73_HWKTTE 4004c - 63 and resistance factor of 2.574 and...

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63 and resistance factor of 2.574 and 0.97 respectively for the same reliability index. This effect could be explained in terms of the bias factors meaning. As defined in the preceding chapters, the bias factor is the ratio of measured to predicted capacity. Then, a large bias factor means a very conservative method and the result is a higher resistance factor. Although the resistance factor is a good qualitative method to determine the degree of conservatism or unconservatism, it does not indicate the accuracy of the method. The combination of both, mean and standard deviation through the COV R (i.e. ratio of standard deviation to the mean or bias) has proved to be a good indicator of the accuracy of the methods. Under this criterion, the new methods such as PDA, Paikowsky, and CAPWAP have the best accuracy, while ENR and modified ENR have the worst accuracy. φ/λ R Ratio The efficiency or performance of the dynamic methods can be evaluated by the ratio of φ/λ R
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