75_HWKTTE 4004c - 65 1779 kN tended to be close to unity in...

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65 1779 kN tended to be close to unity in comparison to the overall bias which tended to be a higher value. This results agree with the observations on the measured versus predicted capacity plots. For ENR and Modified ENR a decrease in bias was observed, but because these two methods are very unconservative, the bias for cases with capacity smaller than 1779 kN tends to be even more unconservative. In terms of φ/λ R , as a general observation, the piles with capacity larger than 1779 kN have larger values than the overall cases, and the piles with capacity smaller than 1779 kN have smaller values than the overall cases. Therefore, the equivalent ASD factor of safety decreases for cases with capacity larger than 1779 kN. An example of this pattern is shown with the Modified ENR at EOD ( β = 1.96), which safety factors decrease from 14.6 for pile with capacity smaller than 1779 kN to 7.75 for piles with capacity larger than 1779 kN. For a reliability index, β , equals 2.5 the decrease in safety
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75_HWKTTE 4004c - 65 1779 kN tended to be close to unity in...

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