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Cultural Dimensions - intercultural film database home find...

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intercultural film database home find movie glossary contact help cultural dimensions INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM Individualism : the opposite of collectivism. Individualist societies are those in which the interests of the individual prevail over the interests of the group, and in which people are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families. Collectivism : the opposite of individualism. Collectivist societies are those in which the interests of the group prevail over the interests of the individual, and in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout their lifetimes offer them security in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. COMMUNICATION STYLE: HIGH/LOW CONTEXT "Context has to do with how much you have to know before effective communication can occur, how much shared knowledge is taken for granted by those in conversation with each other, how much reference there is to tacit common ground. Cultures with high context [...] believe that strangers must be 'filled in' before business can be properly discussed. Cultures with low context [...] believe that each stranger should share in rule- making, and the fewer initial structures there are the better" (Trompenaars / Hampden- Turner, p.92). http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/interculturalfilm/glossary.php (1 of 7)12/16/2009 3:30:30 PM
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intercultural film database MONOCHRONIC / POLYCHRONIC In polychronic cultures, multiple tasks are handled at the same time, and time is subordinate to interpersonal relations. Plans change frequently to adjust to the current situation. Time is not quantified. In monochronic cultures, events are scheduled as seperated items. "One thing at a time" and "time is money" are important concepts – and interpersonal relations are subordinate to time. Deadlines and schedules are taken seriously and time is quantified in that it is earned, spent, saved and wasted. LONG- vs. SHORT-TERM ORIENTATION Long-term orientation means a focus on future, possibly quite distant, rewards, to be achieved by carefulness, thrift and perseverance. Short-term orientation means a focus on the here and now, or at most the near future, with a lack of patience and an unwillingness to defer gratification or wait too long for results. MASCULINITY / FEMININITY "A society is called masculine when emotional gender roles are clearly distinct: men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success, whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.
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