Chapter 17 - Study Guide

Chapter 17 - Study Guide - POLS 101I American National...

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POLS 101I – American National Government Hagan Chapter Seventeen Foreign and Defense Policy: Protecting the American Way Learning Objectives Having read the chapter, the students should be able to do each of the following: 29136. Outline the major international events that have influenced the evolution of American foreign and defense policy, focusing primarily on the emergence and subsequent collapse of a bipolar world. Included in the outline should be the Vietnam War and the demise of the Soviet Union. 29137. Discuss the foreign and military policymaking process, and the important institutions which serve as diplomatic, intelligence gathering, economic, and military instruments of policy. 29138. Compare the military and economic dimensions of national security policy, explaining why the latter has gained precedence in recent years. Also, discuss the politics of national defense, including the role of public opinion and the alleged influence of the military-industrial complex. 29139. Discuss the importance of American global trade relations with the industrialized world and the developing nations. Be sure to include America’s need for access to natural resources available only from other nations. Focus and Main Points The focus of this chapter is on U.S. foreign and defense policy. Included in it is an examination of the roots of these policies and the policymaking process. The author also discusses the economic dimension of national security policy, exploring both external and domestic challenges facing the United States as a world leader. The main points of the chapter are as follows: Since World War II, the United States has acted in the role of world leader, which has substantially affected its military, diplomatic, and economic policies. The United States maintains a high degree of defense preparedness. Such preparedness mandates a substantial level of defense spending and a worldwide deployment of U.S. conventional and strategic forces. Changes in the international marketplace have led to an increased economic interdependence among nations, which has had a marked influence on the economy of the United States and on its security planning. Chapter Summary From 1945 to 1990, U.S. foreign and defense policies were dominated by a preoccupation with the Soviet Union. During most of this period the United States pursued a policy of containment based on the premise that the Soviet Union was an aggressor nation intent on global conquest. Containment policy led the United States into wars in Korea and Vietnam and to maintaining a large defense establishment. U.S. military forces are deployed around the globe, and the nation has a large nuclear arsenal. The end of the cold war, however, has made some of this weaponry and much of the traditional military strategy less relevant to maintaining America’s security. Cutbacks in military spending and a redefinition of the military’s role were underway in the 1990s. With the end of the cold war, the United States has taken a new approach to foreign affairs, which President
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2011 for the course POLS 101 taught by Professor Hamilton,t during the Summer '08 term at College of Southern Idaho.

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Chapter 17 - Study Guide - POLS 101I American National...

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