11-Bioregulation%20metabolism[1]

11-Bioregulation%20metabolism[1] - 1 Bioregulation of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Bioregulation of feeding, Bioregulation of feeding, digestion, and metabolism digestion, and metabolism I. Bioregulation of feeding I. Bioregulation of feeding 2 Regulation of energy balance Regulation of energy balance • Hypothalamus is central control center for Hypothalamus is central control center for feeding behavior • Main nuclei involved: ARC, PVN, VMN, DMN, lateral hypothalamus • Orexic agents ↔ anorexic agents ≈ anabolic agents ↔ catabolic agents • Short-term signals ↔ long-term signals ≈ satiety signals ↔ adiposity signals 3 Stimulation of feeding Stimulation of feeding Central orexic peptides • Central orexic peptides: neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), orexin A & B, galanin • Peripheral orexic peptide: ghrelin produced in stomach >> hypothalamus ghrelin produced in stomach hypothalamus 4 Fig 12-1 Fig 12-3 5 Inhibition of feeding Inhibition of feeding • Satiety peptides Satiety peptides: cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), intestinal peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) • Adiposity signals: leptin & insulin • Central anorexic peptides: α-MSH, cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), CRH, urocortin-II, prolactin- releasing peptide (PrRP) 6 Mouse without leptin versus wild-type mouse Fig 12-5A 7 Fig 12-4 II. Bioregulation of digestion II. Bioregulation of digestion 8 Fig 12-6 CCK Embryonic origin of gastrointestinal Embryonic origin of gastrointestinal endocrine cells endocrine cells • Many cells are derivatives of neural crest or other neural ectoderm cells and migrate to gastric or intestinal mucosa during early development • Endocrine cells of the pancreas probably have endodermal origin 9 Hormonal regulation of gastric digestion Hormonal regulation of gastric digestion • Gastrin:- secreted by antral portion stomach- gastrin I & gastrin II (sulfated)- stimulates synthesis & release of HCl from parietal cells (via histamine release?) • Gastrin-releasing peptide:- secreted by stomach and intestine- stimulates release gastrin, pancreatic enzymes several GI & pancreatic hormones...
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course BIOLOGY G0G49A taught by Professor V.darras during the Fall '11 term at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

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11-Bioregulation%20metabolism[1] - 1 Bioregulation of...

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