13-Pheromones[1] - 1 Pheromones Pheromones Definition of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Pheromones Pheromones Definition of pheromones Definition of pheromones • Most general definition Most general definition: “substance secreted by an animal that causes a specific reaction in another animal” • More correctly: “...in another individual of the same species” • Most restrictive: “...including mutual benifit to sender and receiver” 2 Types of pheromones Types of pheromones • Originally two types (releasers & primers) but Originally two types (releasers & primers) but presently four types • Releaser pheromones: provoke immediate behavioral response • Primer pheromones: need some time to induce changes • Signaler pheromones: provide information • Modifyer pheromones: change mood or emotional status 3 Functions Functions • Reproductive activity & reproductive behavio Reproductive activity & reproductive behavior • Organisation of societies • Trail marking • Alarm cues • Recognition of individuals etc • etc... Detection of pheromones Detection of pheromones Pheromones can be long range volatile • Pheromones can be long-range volatile chemicals or short-range contact chemicals • Detection via olfactory sensory neurons • Invertebrates: variable location, frequently beneath cuticle of sensory hairs sensory hairs • Vertebrates:- primary olfactory system- vomeronasal organ (not in fish) 4 5 I. Releaser pheromones I. Releaser pheromones Sex attractant: bombykol Sex attractant: bombykol First pheromone identified from silk moth • First pheromone identified, from silk moth ( Bombyx mori , 1959) • Released by female silk moth to attract males male silk moths immediately start flying upwind to seek a mate Species specific pheromone traps can be used • Species-specific pheromone traps can be used to catch pest insects 6 silk moth 7 Sex attractant: androstenone Sex attractant: androstenone Boars (male pigs) produce 5 andros 16 en 3 • Boars (male pigs) produce 5 -androst-16-en-3- one = androstenone in submaxillary glands • Elicits lordosis in sows that are in heat • Used in farming for artificial insemination (BOARMATE) Sex attractant in sea lampreys Sex attractant in sea lampreys • Urine of sexually mature males attracts females • Contains at least two compounds: testosterone and a species-specific chemical 8 Sex attractant in red Sex attractant in red-sided garter sided garter snakes snakes • Female carries lipids (bound to Vtg) on dorsal Female carries lipids (bound to Vtg) on dorsal surface, attracting males • Males carry own pheromone (including squalene) on skin, repulsive to other males • During mating male leaves own repulsive pheromone on female • Pheromone mimicry: “she-males” do not carry squalene but release male-attracting pheromone more successful in mating with females than normal males 9 Oviposition attractants in black flies Oviposition attractants in black flies In many species females deposit eggs in • In many species females deposit eggs in...
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course BIOLOGY G0G49A taught by Professor V.darras during the Fall '11 term at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

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13-Pheromones[1] - 1 Pheromones Pheromones Definition of...

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