Parts_of_Chapter_17_chapter_18_spr09 - Exam 3 outline 3...

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Exam 3 outline 3 Parts of Chapter 17- Origins and Evolution Chapter 18- Bacterial Diversity Phylogeny- study of evolutionary relationships of organisms Comparison of rRNA sequences can be used to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. SSU (small subunit) rRNA sequencing of 16S (prokaryotes) or 18S (eukaryotes) subunits is common. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) contains a large collection of rRNa sequences. Phylogenetic trees based on rRNA have been prepared for all the major prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. Comparative ribosomal RNA sequencing has defined the 3 domains of life: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya - The closer they are on the tree, the more closely related they are Characteristics of the Domains of Life Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Cell wall Peptidoglycan Planctomyces-Pirella have protein cell wall, Mycoplasma- Chlamydia Lack cell wall Pseudo-peptidoglycan, protein Chitin cellulose protozoans lack a cell wal Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Lipids Ester-linked fatty acids; Membrane lipid Ether-linked fatty acids; membrane lipid Ester-linked fatty acids; membrane lipid Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 1
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RNA polymerase 1 type with 4 subunits 2 different polymerases with 8-10 subunits each 3 different ones with 10-12 subunits each Feature Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Protein synthesis 70S Ribosomes; ribosomes; formyl- methionine 70S ribosomes but functionally similar to eukaryotes; methionine 80S ribosomes; methionine Taxonomic Heirarchy: Domain Phylum Class Order Family Genus – 16S ribosomal RNA sequence Species – 16S ribosomal RNA sequence 7029 prokaryotes recognized; many more out there Nomenclature and Bergey's Manual Binomial system of nomenclature: descriptive genus name and species epithet. Ex. Bacillus subtilis The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria regulates naming of prokaryotes. Formal recognition of a new prokaryotic species requires:
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Parts_of_Chapter_17_chapter_18_spr09 - Exam 3 outline 3...

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