BIOL_2051_ch24_notes

BIOL_2051_ch24_notes - Chapter 24- The Adaptive Immune...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 24- The Adaptive Immune Response Immunity - ability of an organism to resist infection All cells involved in immunity originate from common stem cells in bone marrow Immune system- protects against foreign cells and macromolecules Antigen/Immunogen- foreign cells or macromolecules that induce immune response Types of Immunity 1. Naturally acquired immunity 2. Artificially acquired immunity Naturally acquired immunity Can be classified as active or passive Naturally acquired active immunity Host produces antibodies and T cells in response to an infection Immunity can last for years or lifetime Naturally acquired passive immunity Occurs when antibodies are passed from one host to another Ex. Antibodies pass through placenta from mother to fetus. These circulate in infant’s system for several months after birth Lasts few weeks to months Artificially acquired immunity Can be classified as active or passive immunity Artificially acquired active immunity Result of vaccination Host makes antibodies that can last for years
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Vaccinations/Immunizations: To reduce risks, vaccines contain inactivated pathogens or their products Toxoid – chemically modified exotoxin retains antigenicity but loses toxicity Tetanus, Diphtheria Killed bacteria cell – formaldehyde, heat used to kill Cholera Inactivated virus – formaldehyde used to inactivate Salk polio vaccine, Influenza Live cells/virus- More effective Attenuated: has lost its virulence Tuberculosis, chickenpox Purified polysaccharide Meningitis Artificially acquired passive immunity Host receives antibodies (antiserum) from another host that has formed antibodies against a specific antigen Ex. Snakebite victim receives antivenom Lasts only a few weeks Innate or Non-specific Immunity First line of defense Phagocytic leukocytes Engulf Move by ameboid motion
Background image of page 2
Contain lysosomes Inclusions containing H 2 O 2 , lysozyme, proteases, phosphatases, nuclease, and lipases that destroy invader Engulfed bacterium fuses with lysosome and is destroyed Phagocytic leukocytes 1. Neutrophils PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) Large numbers in blood or inflammation site indicate active infection 2. Macrophages and Monocytes Called monocyte when circulating, differentiates into macrophage when enters tissues Antigen-presenting cells Macrophage present peptide antigens to T cells to activate a specific immune response Phagocytes recognize pathogens by coming in contact with them. Proteins on surface of phagocyte recognize specific structural component (ex. LPS) on pathogen Ingestion of the pathogen activates phagocytes to produce toxic oxygen molecules to kill ingested pathogen Inflammation- nonspecific reaction; occurs at infection site to localize and destroy pathogen Macrophages secrete vasoactive factors that contribute to characteristics associated with
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

Page1 / 15

BIOL_2051_ch24_notes - Chapter 24- The Adaptive Immune...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online