BIOL_2051_ch26_notes2-1

BIOL_2051_ch26_notes2-1 - Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases...

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Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections Staphylococcus aureus Boils/ pimples— walled off from body with fibrin Impetigo- skin infection “Scalded skin” syndrome- due to exfoliative toxin Can produce hemolysins, superantigen enterotoxin A (food poisoning), coagulase, leukocidin, superantigen TSST (toxic shock syndrome) Can also cause pneumonia and meninigitis Treatment with penicillins MRSA: methicillin-resistant S. aureus Horizontal transfer of drug-resistant genes Evolved in environment with high levels of antibiotic Hospitals—nosocomial infections Resistant to all drugs except vancomycin Streptococcus pyogenes 60+ strains strep throat (pharyngitis) -5-10% of sore throats diagnosis- blood agar: slow; antibody test: rapid infections of the inner ear impetigo- skin infection Rheumatic fever – autoimmune; antibodies against S. pyogenes react with host tissue damages to heart valves necrotizing fasciitis (“flesh eating”) Many viruses can cause skin rashes Usually infect through respiratory tract Chickenpox caused by Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpesvirus
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VZV can lay dormant in nerve cells for long periods of time. Shingles is caused by the migration of VZV to the skin; painful blisters Measles/ rubella caused by a paramyxovirus Symptoms- fever, cough, rash Mumps- inflammation of salivary glands Rubella/German measles Caused by a togavirus symptoms - similar to measles but milder Can be prevented with MMR vaccine Many fungal skin infections Respiratory Tract Infections Most respiratory pathogens are transferred from person to person via respiratory aerosols- coughing, sneezing, talking, breathing Transmission usually occurs over short distances because microorganisms survive poorly in air Streptococcus pneumoniae- lower respiratory disease, can also cause meningitis pneumococcal pneumonia Inflammatory reaction in alveoli Usually a secondary infection Capsule protects organism from phagocytosis untreated- 30% mortality rate Symptoms = sudden onset of chills, labored breathing, pleural(chest) pain Pneumonia can also be caused by viruses, other bacteria, or fungi S. pneumoniae is found in respiratory flora in about 40% of healthy people Corynebacterium diphtheriae
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Childhood upper respiratory infection, diphtheria. Pathogen strains of
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BIOL_2051_ch26_notes2-1 - Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases...

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