11 - Grouping by making multiple enzyme complexes is much...

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3/29/11 Citric Acid cycle Central to all pathways Provides intermediates for biosynthesis Take pyruvate knock off a carbon Production of Citric Acid About a billion pounds of citric acid are produced annually. Used in soft drinks, processed foods Biopolymers are broken down to monomers and feed in thru glycolysis typically into intermediates that are formed in the citric acid cycle. Break pyruvate to CO2 and part of this process we produce a lot of NADH. Lots of ATP is produced in this process. High-energy electrons are generated which goes into making lots of ATP Process of citric acid cycle occurs inside the mitochondria with just one of the enzymes from the citric acid cycle embedded in the inner membrane. The inner membrane is highly selective. Entry of pyruvate into the TCA Cycle Pyruvate + NAD + CoA Acetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2 Discovery of CoA By Frtiz Lipmann and Nathan Kaplan This molecule serves as the carrier for Pyruvate goes through 3 major enzymes to make Acetyl-CoA First enzyme in pathway regulated**
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Unformatted text preview: Grouping by making multiple enzyme complexes is much more efficient Don’t need to know details of reactions*** Hydroxyethyl-TTP on the first enzyme Lipoamide- has long arm structure, which interacts to make acetyl group, makes amide linkages to side chain PHD complex Boyerbiochem.com click on interactive animations Regulation of the PHD Complex Under high energy level situations the enzyme, E1, is inhibited by NADH and acetyl CoA The enzyme, E1, is also modulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation (hormonally controlled) Fumarase- adds water across the double bonds Malate dehydrogenase- strips off hydrogen’s and left with starting compound Siccinyl-CoA and citrate can say stop here after acetyl-CoA. And other steps can give feedback inhibition. Linear verses Circular Paths Additions of component substrates to linear pathways give a stiochiometric increase in products Addition of component substrates to circular pathways can have very non-linear effects. Why?...
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11 - Grouping by making multiple enzyme complexes is much...

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