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finalfairgame - Psy Final Fairgame sheet Thinking Geons...

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Psy Final Fairgame sheet Thinking Geons like alphabet that makes sounds)- alphabet of shapes that we make things out of (form shapes from geons) and "impossible figures" (MC Escher- images that it is impossible to do a geonic analysis (can’t break them down into geons) Prototype theory of meaning: familiar or typical example Categories- ex- Soda= Coke We de- cide whether an object belongs to a category by determining how well it resembles the proto- types of that category by forming concepts Spreading activation: thinking about one of the concepts that will activate/prime concepts linked to it. [flower->rose, violet] [chair more freq cited than stool] Stroop effect & Automatization: interference between automized and deliberate ways of think- ing. tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink. We are automatized to see certain things, regardless of what we are being asked to look for (perception) Mental rotation and map image-scanning studies: Viewing a mental image is at least partly like real vision (Mental imagery experiment) Perceiving an object is the same, even if viewed from 2 different perspectives. Reasoning that if people visualize mental images, then the time it takes them to rotate a mental image should be similar to the time needed to rotate it. Means that it is possible for researchers to infer thought processes from someone’s delay in answer- ing a question Change blindness: failure to detect changes in parts of scene Attentional blink: during a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else. (gorilla walking through ppl throwing ball) Nature of expertise: requires about 10 years of intense practice. expands the axons and dend- rites of neurons relevant to a skill. recognize patterns faster. Learn to apply algorithms quickly. Algorithms: mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypotheses heuristics: strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess [guess which child oldest= tallest] Quick, unconscious, and not deliberated Representativeness heuristic: assumption that an item that resembles members of some cat- egory is probably also in that category (looks and waddles like a duck, it is 1) Base-rate information: how common the 2 categories are. ppl overlook base-rate info. [engineer, lawyer] (look at how closely it resembles two categories and then at base rate info aka how close those two categories are) Availability heuristic: tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of category, then that category must be common. [sept 11] uncommon events can be easier to remember than common ones. Overconfidence: Overestimation of the accuracy of one’s opinions or prediction Confirmation bias: accepting a hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities [poorly focused photo, form wrong hyp.] Functional fixedness- tendency to adhere to a single approach or a single way of using an item Framing bias and "spin": tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed differently.
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