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Unformatted text preview: Accumulation Authors: Bill Davis, Horacio Porta and Jerry Uhl ©19962007 Publisher: Math Everywhere, Inc. Version 6.0 2.04 Transforming Integrals BASICS The really interesting stuff in this lesson is the material on bellshaped curves in B.3). The material in B.2) will be beneficial to you if you are going on to vector calculus. Both B.2) and B.3) require some experience with B.1). B.1) Breaking more of the code of the integral: Transforming integrals · B.1.a) Combining the fundamental formula and the chain rule How do you know that the integrals Ÿ a b f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D „ x and Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D f' @ u D „ u are equal? · Answer: The best way to see why they are equal is to calculate both of them. The second is the easier because the fundamental formula tells you that Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D f' @ u D „ u = f @ u D » u @ a D u @ b D = f @ u @ b DD f @ u @ a DD . For the first integral, the chain rule tells you that the derivative of f @ u @ x DD is f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D . The fundamental formula steps in to say Ÿ a b f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D „ x = f @ u @ x DD » a b = f @ u @ b DD f @ u @ a DD . Now do you know why Ÿ a b f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D „ x = Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D f' @ u D „ u ? Reason: They are both equal to f @ u @ b DD f @ u @ a DD . A point of anxiety might come up: In the integral Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D f' @ u D „ u, the lone symbol u is treated as a variable and u @ a D and u @ b D are numbers. In the integral, Ÿ a b f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D „ x, u @ x D is a function, x is a variable, and a and b are numbers. This should not cause you any trouble. · B.1.b) Now you know Ÿ a b f' @ u @ x DD u' @ x D „ x = Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D f' @ u D „ u. What practical use is this? · Answer: Notational magic allows you to take the more complicated integral and replace it with the less complicated but equal integral. Pair them up as follows: f' @ u @ x DD <> f' @ u D u' @ x D „ x <> „ u Ÿ a b <> Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D . Lots of folks like to call this a "transformation" of a hard integral into an easy integral. · B.1.c) Here is Mathematica 's calculation of Ÿ p Cos A x 2 E 2 x „ x: Clear @ x D ; MathematicaCalculation = ‡ p Cos A x 2 E 2 x „ x Sin A p 2 E Use a transformation to explain where this result comes from. · Answer: The integral at the center stage is Ÿ p Cos A x 2 E 2 x „ x. The key is that 2 x is the derivative of x 2 , so go with u @ x D = x 2 . This gives the pairings Cos A x 2 E <> Cos @ u D 2 x „ x = u' @ x D „ x <> „ u Ÿ p = Ÿ a b <> Ÿ u @ a D u @ b D = Ÿ 2 p 2 So Ÿ p Cos A x 2 E 2 x „ x = Ÿ 2 p 2 Cos @ u D „ u....
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course MATH 231 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
 Spring '08
 Staff
 Integrals

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