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Lecture - 2 - April 1st

Lecture - 2 - April 1st - EARLY 20TH CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY...

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1878 - 1958 John B. Watson Watson publishes Psychology as the Behaviorist Views i t in 1913 in which he outlines the behaviorist position. Introspection was dropped, the contents of the mind were o ff limits; instead, the concern was with understanding how observable events ( “stimuli” ) a ff ect overt behaviors ( “responses” ) , the iconic example being the work of Ivan Pavlov ( who trained dogs to salivate to a bell ) . Interesting Facts He had a highly publicized a ff air with his graduate student - assistant ( whom he later married ) , and during his subsequent divorce he was forced to resign from Johns Hopkins University. He left academia at 42 and never returned; but went on to become a pioneer in advertising, ultimately earning several times the salary he had as an academic. He is credited with helping to popularize the “co ff ee break” through an ad campaign he did with Maxwell House Co ff ee. Behaviorism EARLY 20TH CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY
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1904 - 1990 B.F. Skinner EARLY 20TH CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY Radical Behaviorism A school of behaviorism developed by B.F. Skinner that focused on how environmental contingencies of “reward” and “punishment” shape behavior. “The consequences of an act a ff ect the probability of it occurring again.”
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Humanism The humanistic perspective developed as a “third force” in psychology ( with behaviorism and the psychoanalytic perspective being the other two ) that focused on the way “healthy” people strive for self - determination and self - realization. EARLY 20TH CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY 1908 - 1970 Abraham Maslow 1902 - 1987 Carl Rogers
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Cognitive Psychology A number of individuals in the 1950’s and 60’s became disgruntled with the limitations of the “stimulus - response” psychology of behaviorism. The development of the computer provided a way of thinking about how information might be processed between “stimulus” ( input ) and “response” ( output ) . THE “COGNITIVE REVOLUTION”
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Cognitive Psychology A number of individuals in the 1950’s and 60’s became disgruntled with the limitations of the “stimulus - response” psychology of behaviorism. The development of the computer provided a way of thinking about how information might be processed between “stimulus” ( input ) and “response” ( output ) . 1928 - Present Ulric Neisser Ulric Neisser publishes the first o cial textbook of Cognitive Psychology in 1967, coins the term “cognitive” and provides a formal definition for this new approach. THE “COGNITIVE REVOLUTION”
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Cognitive Psychology 1928 - Present Ulric Neisser “...the term ‘cognition’ refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations...
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