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Lecture - 9 - April 20th

Lecture - 9 - April 20th - SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Chapter...

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Chapter 6 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
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SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Sensation and Perception Sensation Refers to the process by which we detect physical energy ( a stimulus ) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. Perception Refers to the process by which we select, organize and interpret our sensations.
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Bottom - Up and Top - Down Processing SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Bottom - up processing is processing that begins with sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of that sensory information. Sensation Perception Physical World
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Bottom - Up and Top - Down Processing SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Top - down processing is processing that is guided by an individual’s prior knowledge and expectations.
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Psychophysics SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them. 1801 - 1887 Gustav Theodor Fechner He demonstrated that we could measure subjective experience and relate it to the objective world in a lawful way. He thus set the stage for the development of scientific psychology!
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The Absolute Threshold SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS The absolute threshold refers to minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. Proportionof“Yes”Responses 0 5 10 15 20 25 Stimulus Intensity (lumens)
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Signal Detection Theory SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS It assumes there is no absolute threshold and that detection of a faint stimulus ( signal ) amid background stimulation ( noise ) depends on a persons experience, expectation, motivation and level of fatigue.
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Subliminal Stimulation SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS A signal is said to be subliminal if it falls below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
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Subliminal Stimulation - Research Examples Can we really be influenced by a stimulus that cannot be consciously experienced? SEEING THE WORLD: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Debner and Jacoby ( 1994 ) - Process Dissociation Procedure “Complete the following words in any way you wish excep t with the word that immediately preceded it.” Spice Spice XXXX XXXX Spi__ Spi__ More likely to use the prime word to complete the word stem than if they had not been primed with the word!
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