Lecture - 12 - April 27th

Lecture - 12 - April 27th - CLASSICAL VS. OPERANT...

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CLASSICAL VS. OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning involves forming associations between stimuli ( a CS and an US it signals ) . It involves respondent behavior - actions that are automatic responses to a stimulus ( salivating in response to meat powder and later in response to a tone ) . Operant Conditioning involves an organism associating its own actions with consequences. It involves operant behavior - behavior that operates on the environment to produc e
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OPERANT CONDITIONING - BEGINNINGS Thorndike forwarded the law of e f ect , which says that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. 1874 - 1949 Edward Thorndike http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre - 8&feature=related
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Using Thorndike's law of e f ect as a starting point, Skinner developed the 0perant chamber , or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning . 1904 - 1990 B.F. Skinner The operant chamber, or Skinner box, comes with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal’s response.
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement - Types of Reinforcers Reinforcement : Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement - Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement? It’s positive reinforcement because it’s pleasantly warm! It’s negative reinforcement because it removes uncomfortably cold air!
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement - Primary and Secondary Reinforcers A primary ( unconditioned ) reinforcer is an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisFes a biological need ( sleep, food, water, sex ) . A secondary ( conditioned ) reinforcer is a stimulus that gains its power through its association with a primary reinforcer ( lights and sounds ) .
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement - Immediate and Delayed Reinforcers An immediate reinforcer is a reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A delayed reinforcer is a reinforcer that delayed in time for a certain behavior. Rat presses lever Food Pellet Rat presses lever Food Pellet Best Learning
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OPERANT CONDITIONING Reinforcement - Continuous and Intermittent Continuous reinforcement involves reinforcing a response every time it occurs. Continuous reinforcement results in rapid learning but also rapid extinctio n . Intermittent reinforcement
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Lecture - 12 - April 27th - CLASSICAL VS. OPERANT...

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