Lecture - 13 - April 29th

Lecture - 13 - April 29th - OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING...

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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Observational Learning is learning by observing others. Modeling refers to the process of observing and imitating a speciFc behavior.
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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Albert Bandura - Bobo Doll Experiments - Modeling Aggression 1925 - Present Albert Bandura http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pr0OTCVtHbU&feature=related
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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Antisocial E f ects How much are we a f ected by repeated exposure to violent programs? Correlational Studies indicate: In the USA and Canada, homicide rates doubled between 1957 and 1974, just when TV was introduced and spreading When South Africans were Frst introduced to TV in 1975, a similar near doubling of the homicide rate began after 1975 Elementary schoolchildren with heavy exposure to media violence ( via TV, videos, and video games ) also tend to get into more Fghts
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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Antisocial E f ects How much are we a f ected by repeated exposure to violent programs? This “violence - viewing e f ect” seems to stem from at least two factors: One group of researchers observed a sevenfold increase in violent play immediately after children had viewed “Power Rangers” ( e.g., threw Fying karate kicks at each other ) . ±ollowing the 1999 Columbine High School massacre every US state ( except Vermont ) had to deal with copycat threats or incidents. 1. Imitation 2. Desensitization In one study, adult males who spent three evenings watching sexually violent movies became progressively less bothered by the violence: compared with those in the control group they expressed less sympathy for domestic violence and rated the victims injuries as less severe.
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OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Prosocial E f ects
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Chapter 8 MEMORY
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MEMORY Memory is an indication that learning has persisted over time.
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CONCEPTUALIZING MEMORY We can conceive of memory in terms of three basic processes: 1 ) we must encode the event ( get it into memory ) , 2 ) store it ( retain it in memory ) , and 3 ) retrieve the event ( get it out of memory ) .
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ENCODING How we Encode 1. Automatic Processing We unconsciously and e f ortless encode and retain a vast amount of incidental ( space, time and frequency ) information. Space Time Frequency During the last year have you attended more birthday parties or concerts? Have you eaten more eggs or candy bars in the last seven days?
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ENCODING How we Encode 1. Automatic Processing We unconsciously and e f ortless encode w e "- learned information ( word meanings ) . Well - Learned Information - The Stroop E f ect Red Yellow Blue Green Orange
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ENCODING How we Encode 2. E f ortful Processing Encoding and retaining novel information ( like learning a concept from a textbook ) requires attention and conscious e f ort. Herman Ebbinghaus - Nonsense Syllables ( CVC’s ) - Procedure Created nonsense syllables ( CVC’s ) : PID, TUV, ZOF, GEK, DAX, ZIL.
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course PSYC 1 taught by Professor Stuartantsis during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture - 13 - April 29th - OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING...

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