Lecture - 16 - May 6th

Lecture - 16 - May 6th - MIDTERM 2 MONDAY MAY 9TH 45...

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MIDTERM 2 - MONDAY MAY 9TH 45 questions The exam covers everything SINCE the last midterm: chapter 6 ( sensation and perception ) , chapter 7 ( learning ) , chapter 8 ( memory ) and the chapter 9 ( only “thinking” parts - pages 369 - 382 ) . Remember to bring questions #6 - 9 to the exam ( 2 will be chosen to hand in for grading ) There are half - a - dozen or so questions that refer directly to experiments. So knowing experimenters’ names, what they did and found, and ( if applicable ) what principle the results support would be a good idea. Remember to bring the big pink scantron!
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Chapter 9 COGNITION
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COGNITION Cognition refers to all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.
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CONCEPT FORMATION AND CATEGORIZATION To help us think about and deal with the world we use concepts - a mental category of similar objects, events, ideas or people - which are in turn organized into category hierarchies.
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How do we form our concepts? 1. Classical ( Definitional ) View An instance is classified as belonging to a category if it possess certain necessary and su cient features. A figure with three straight lines and three angles. CONCEPT FORMATION AND CATEGORIZATION Illustration - Triangles What is a triangle?
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How do we form our concepts? CONCEPT FORMATION AND CATEGORIZATION Illustration - Birds What is a bird? 2. Probabilistic ( Prototypical ) View An instance is classified as belonging to a category if the similarity between the instance and category is above some critical threshold. An animal that has feathers, a beak, wings, and can fly. People seem to use prototypes for classification often: for example, people more quickly classify a robin as a bird than a penguin as a bird.
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USING CONCEPTS TO MAKE DECISIONS There are two basic ways to solve a problem or make a decision: 1. Use of an Algorithm A systematic approach that exhausts all possibilities to arrive at a solution. Tends to be slow but accurate. Y P L O S O H C Y G We could apply an algorithm in which we try each letter in each location - but there are some 907, 200 permutations!
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USING CONCEPTS TO MAKE DECISIONS There are two basic was to solve a problem or make a decision: 2. Use of a Heuristic A short - cut approach that allows us to solve problems and make decisions more e ciently.
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