Lecture 2 presented

8 waters covalent bonds are polar polar covalent bond

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Unformatted text preview: the distance between the nucleus and electrons. 11 11 12 12 Building our Tree Concepts Molecular bonds Foundations Evolution Scientific Method Molecular Interactions 13 13 Figure 2.8 Water’s Covalent Bonds Are Polar polar covalent bond 14 14 Ionic bonds When one atom is much more electronega7ve than the other, a complete transfer of electrons may occur. This results in two ions with fully paired electrons in their outer shells. 15 15 Figure 2.9 Forma7on of Sodium and Chloride Ions 16 16 Ionic bonds Ions: electrically charged par7cles— when atoms lose or gain electrons Ca.ons—posi7ve Anions—nega7ve Ionic bonds are formed by the electrical aRrac7on of posi7ve and nega7ve ions. Salts are ionically bonded compounds. 17 17 Figure 2.10 Water Molecules Surround Ions Hydration of the ion Water molecules shield The electrostatic charge by interacting with the charge with their dipole 18 18 Hydorgen Bonds Hydrogen bonds: aRrac7on between the δ– end of one molecule and the δ+ hydrogen end of another molecule. Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules, and are important in the structure of biological molecules including DNA and proteins. 19 19 20 20 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Ineterac7ons Polar molecules that form hydrogen bonds with water are hydrophilic (“water ­ loving”). Nonpolar molecules such as hydrocarbons that interact with each other, but not with...
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