Lecture 2 presented

Lecture 2 presented - Lecture 2 Atoms molecules biological...

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1 Lecture 2: Atoms, molecules, biological molecules and reac7ons Chapters 2 and 3
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2 A review of atomic structure Loca7ons of electrons in an atom are described by orbitals . Orbital: region where electron is found at least 90% of the 7me. Orbitals have characteris7c shapes and orienta7ons, and can be occupied by two electrons. Orbitals are Flled in a speciFc sequence.
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3 Figure 2.4 Electron Shells and Orbitals
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4 Figure 2.5 Electron Shells Determine the Reac7vity of Atoms
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5 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Proper7es of MaRer? The outermost electron shell ( valence’shell ) determines how the atom behaves. If the outermost shell is full, the atom is stable ; it won’t react with other atoms. Reac)ve atoms have unpaired electrons in their outermost shell.
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6
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7 Figure 2.6 Electrons Are Shared in Covalent Bonds
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8 Figure 2.7 Covalent Bonding Can Form Compounds Carbon can form four covalent bonds .
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9
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10 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules? Covalent bonds can be Single —sharing 1 pair of electrons Double —sharing 2 pairs of electrons Triple —sharing 3 pairs of electrons C C C H N N
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11 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules? Sharing of electrons in a covalent bond is not always equal. Electronega.vity : the aRrac7ve force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons. It depends on the number of protons and the distance between the nucleus and electrons.
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12
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13 Evolution Foundations Building our Tree Scientific Method Concepts Molecular Interactions Molecular bonds
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14 Figure 2.8 Water’s Covalent Bonds Are Polar polar’covalent’bond
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15 When one atom is much more electronega7ve than the other, a complete transfer of electrons may occur. This results in two ions with fully paired electrons in their outer shells. Ionic bonds
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16 Figure 2.9 Forma7on of Sodium and Chloride Ions
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17 Ionic bonds Ions : electrically charged par±cles— when atoms lose or gain electrons Ca.ons —posi±ve Anions —nega±ve Ionic bonds are formed by the electrical aRrac±on of posi±ve and nega±ve ions.
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Lecture 2 presented - Lecture 2 Atoms molecules biological...

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