Lecture 1 presented

Lecture 1 presented - Lecture 1 Intro and Chemistry of...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1: Intro and Chemistry of Biology Chapters 1 and 2 2 Syllabus • • • Sec$on 1: Biological molecules 8/2 M lecture 1 8/4 W lecture 2 Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4 Intro and Chemistry of biology Biological molecules and reacBons • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8/6 F lecture 3 Discussion sessions 1 and 2 Origins of Life, How it all began? Sec$on 2: Biological Energy and the Chapters 8, 9, & 10 incorpora$on of Carbon/Nitrogen/etc 8/9 M lecture 4 Quiz 1 (first 15 min. ) Cellular Energy 8/11 W lecture 5 HarvesBng Energy 8/13 F lecture 6 Carbon and other Key required chemicals: N, P, S Discussion sessions 3 and 4 Sec$on 3: Building a Cell 8/16 M lecture 7 8/18 W 8/20 F lecture 8 lecture 9 8/23 M lecture 10 8/25 W lecture 11 Discussion sessions 5 ­7 Chapters 5, 6, 11 & 12 EXAM I (Lectures 1 ­6) Cell structure: Bacteria and Archaea Cell structure: Eukaryotes Quiz 2 (first 15 min) Cell cycle and Mitosis Sex and Meiosis Inheritance, genes and chromosomes 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sec$on 4: Central Dogma; DNA to RNA to Protein Chapters 13, 14 & 15 8/27 F lecture 12 EXAM II (Lectures 7 ­11) ReplicaBon 8/30 M lecture 13 9/1 W lecture 14 Discussion sessions 8 ­9 TranscripBon/TranslaBon MutaBons Sec$on 5: Genomes and the control of gene expression Chapters 16, 17 & 19 9/3 F lecture 15 Quiz 3 (first 15 min) RegulaBon of gene expression 9/6 M lecture 16 Genomes 9/8 W lecture 17 DifferenBal gene expression Discussion sessions 10 and 12 9/10 F lecture 18 *Exam III Lectures 12 ­17 *FINAL Lectures 1 ­17 *A single exam will be given, 100 pts will cover lectures 12 ­17 and will act as the third midterm covering this secBon. The second 100 pts will be composed of comprehensive and integraBve quesBons designed to cover the enBre course. 4 ON Line Assignments and due dates What is your status? A. Freshman B. Sophomore C. Junior D. Senior E. Auditor Have you taken Chemistry A. Yes B. No Whose is primarily responsible for your success in this class? A. You B. Instructor C. TA Allison Henry BioPortal And on ­line resources A different approach to learning: Some goals for the course 1. Get you to think like a scienBst (biologist) 2. Learn the language, important words will be in bold. Learn them, use them, most of all understand them. 3. Build a reference frame for informaBon. Don’t just memorize lists of facts, place them in context. 11 Intro Quiz You have 15 min. Building A Frame work Fact Concepts Foundations 13 Why study Biology What Is Biology? How Is All Life on Earth Related? How Do We as Biologists InvesBgate Life? In this class, and in this series, we will aiempt to address these quesBons. 14 Why study Biology http://www.symphonyofscience.com 15 What is Biology? Biology: the scienBfic study of living things. In this class we wil focus on the origins of life, the cell. 16 http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/ What is Biology? Evolu$on: a central theme of biology. Living systems evolve through differenBal survival and reproducBon. The processes of evoluBon have generated the enormous diversity of life on Earth. 17 Building our Tree Foundations Evolution 18 What is Biology? Evolu$on: change in the geneBc makeup of biological populaBons through Bme. Charles Darwin proposed that all living organisms are descended from a common ancestor by the mechanism of natural selec$on. 19 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? Biologists use many methods to expand our understanding of life. • ObservaBon: improved by new technologies • ExperimentaBon 20 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? The scientific method (hypothesis–prediction (H–P) method): • • • • • ObservaBons QuesBons Hypotheses PredicBons TesBng 21 Figure 1.12 The ScienBfic Method 22 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? Controlled experiments manipulate the variable that is predicted to cause differences between groups. The variable is manipulated in an “experimental” group and the results compared with data from an unmanipulated “control” group. 23 EXAMPLE Atrizine: 2 ­chloro ­4 ­(ethylamine) ­6 ­(isopropylamine) ­s ­triazine, an organic compound consisBng of an s ­triazine ­ring and is a widely used herbicide. Its use is controversial due to its link to nontarget species, such as on amphibians, and because of widespread contaminaBon of waterways and drinking water supplies. Figure 1.13 Controlled Experiments Manipulate a Variable (Part 1) 25 Figure 1.13 Controlled Experiments Manipulate a Variable (Part 2) 26 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? Independent variable: the variable being manipulated. Dependent variable: the response that is measured. 27 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? ComparaBve experiments look for differences between samples or groups. The variables can not be controlled; data are gathered from different sample groups and compared. 28 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? StaBsBcal methods help scienBsts determine if differences between groups are significant. StaBsBcal tests start with a null hypothesis: that no differences exists. 29 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? StaBsBcal methods are applied to data to determine the probability of geong a parBcular result even if the null hypothesis is true. StaBsBcal methods eliminate the possibility that results are due to random variaBon. 30 CLICKER QUESTION 1 Your pet chameleon changes color depending on its environment. You think this is because it can respond to how much heat it absorbs from whatever it is siong on. In scienBfic terms, your thoughts are a(n) a. observaBon. b. conclusion. c. hypothesis. d. predicBon. e. theory. 31 How Do Biologists InvesBgate Life? DisBnguishing science and nonscience: ScienBfic hypotheses must be testable, and have the potenBal of being rejected. Science depends on evidence that comes from reproducible and quan3fiable observa3ons. This is real important: to understand the difference between science and nonscience 32 Atoms, molecules and glue The beginning Figure 2.1 The Helium Atom All matter is composed of atoms How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Electrons—negligible mass; negaBve charge In the nucleus: Protons—have mass; posiBve charge Neutrons—have mass; no charge 35 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Atoms have volume and mass. Mass of one proton or one neutron = 1 atomic mass unit (amu) or 1 dalton, or 1.7 × 10–24 grams. Mass of one electron = 9 × 10–28 (usually ignored). 36 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Element: pure substance containing only one kind of atom. Elements are arranged in the periodic table. Each element has a unique chemical symbol. 37 Figure 2.2 The Periodic Table (Part 1) 38 Figure 2.2 The Periodic Table (Part 2) He from periodic table here The number of protons identifies an element. Number of protons = atomic number. 39 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? All elements except hydrogen have one or more neutrons. Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons. Mass number = mass of atom in daltons. 40 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Isotopes: forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons, and thus different mass numbers. Example: 12C has 6 neutrons 13C has 7 neutrons 14C has 8 neutrons 41 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Isotopes of some elements, such as hydrogen, have special names. 42 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Atomic weight: average of mass numbers of isotopes in their normally occurring proporBons. Atomic weight of carbon = 12.011 Atomic weight of hydrogen = 1.0079 43 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? Some isotopes are unstable: Radioisotopes give off energy in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma radiaBon from the nucleus. This radioac3ve decay transforms the atom, including changes in the number of protons. 44 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? The number of electrons determines how atoms will interact. Chemical reacBons involve changes in the distribuBon of electrons between atoms. 45 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the ProperBes of Maier? LocaBons of electrons in an atom are described by orbitals. • Orbital: region where electron is found at least 90% of the Bme. • Orbitals have characterisBc shapes and orientaBons, and can be occupied by two electrons. • Orbitals are filled in a specific sequence. 46 Figure 2.4 Electron Shells and Orbitals 47 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course BIS 2A taught by Professor Grossberg during the Summer '08 term at UC Davis.

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