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# CH-8 - Dr Sabah AL-Naimi Qatar University Physics Program...

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Dr. Sabah AL-Naimi Qatar University Physics Program FALL 2009 PHYS191 1 (8.1) Temperature & Thermometers We associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an objects feels. Our senses provide us with a qualitative indication of temperature. Two objects are in thermal contact with each other if energy can be exchanged between them: The exchanges we will focus on will be in the form of heat or electromagnetic radiation. The energy is exchanged due to a temperature difference. The Thermometer is a device that is used to measure the temperature of a system. Thermometers are based on the principle that some physical property of a system changes as the system’s temperature changes. These properties include: The volume of a liquid. The dimensions of a solid. The pressure of a gas at a constant volume. The volume of a gas at a constant pressure. The electric resistance of a conductor. The color of an object. A temperature scale can be established on the basis of any of these physical properties. A common type of thermometer is a liquid-in-glass. The material in the capillary tube expands as it is heated. The liquid is usually mercury or alcohol.

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Dr. Sabah AL-Naimi Qatar University Physics Program FALL 2009 PHYS191 2 (8.2) Thermal Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects would not exchange energy by heat or electromagnetic radiation if they were placed in thermal contact. The thermal contact does not have to also be physical contact. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Let object C be the thermometer. Since they are in thermal equilibrium with each other, there is no energy exchanged among them. (8.3) Celsius Scale, Kelvin Scale, and Fahrenheit Scale A thermometer can be calibrated by placing it in contact with some natural systems that remain at constant temperature.
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