18-6.punishment - Punishment Definition: Presentation of a...

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Punishment Definition: Presentation of a stimulus contingent on the occurrence of R, which produces a decrease in the frequency of R (aka “positive punishment”) Effects of Punishment: Direct effects: Rapid response suppression Indirect effects: Generalized suppression: Suppression of nontarget Rs Punishment-induced aggression or “emotional” behavior Increase in escape behavior (Punishment = EO for escape) Increased sensitivity to reinforcement for Alt R Punishing Stimuli Learning History: Unconditioned (unlearned) Physically painful and noxious stimuli (shock, extreme temp) Conditioned (effectiveness based on pairing with other punishing stimuli) Social stimuli (frowns, insults) Source of Punishment: Social: delivered by an agent Automatic: direct result of R Stimulus Characteristics: Electrical (shock, noise) Mechanical (restraint) Noxious substances (taste, odor), drugs Forceful contact and other physical stimulation (spanks, slaps)
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18-6.punishment - Punishment Definition: Presentation of a...

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