Ch5_B_RxnTypes - CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN WATER Section...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN WATER Section 4.6—CD-ROM Ch. 4 We will look at EXCHANGE REACTIONS AX + B Y The “driving force” is the formation of an insoluble compound — a precipitate. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI( aq) -----> 2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s) AY + B X The anions The exchange places between cations. Precipitation Reactions Pb(NO3) 2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) ----> PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3 (aq) Acid-Base Reactions • A-B reactions are sometimes called NEUTRALIZATIONS because the solution because is neither acidic nor basic at the end. • The other product of the A-B reaction is a SALT, MX. HX + MOH ---> MX + H2O OH Mn+ comes from base & Xn- comes from acid acid This is one way to make compounds! This Net ionic equation Pb2+(aq) + 2 I-(aq ) ---> PbI2(s) Acid-Base Reactions • The “driving force” is the formation of water. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ---> NaCl (aq) + H2O(liq) • Net ionic equation OH-(aq ) + H+(aq) OH ---> H 2O(liq) ---> • This applies to ALL reactions of STRONG acids and bases. GasForming Reactions Gas-Forming Reactions • This is primarily the chemistry of metal carbonates. CO2 and water ---> H 2CO3 H2CO3(aq) + Ca2+ ---> 2 H+(aq) + CaCO 3(s) (limestone) Adding acid reverses this reaction. MCO 3 + acid ---> CO 2 + salt Page 1 CaCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ---> 2 CaSO4(s) + H2CO3(aq) CaSO Carbonic acid is unstable and forms CO 2 & H2O H2CO3(aq) ---> CO2 + water (Antacid tablet has citric acid + NaHCO3) ...
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