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seemann2 - Groups Dyad Person A >< Person B Triad Person...

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Groups Dyad - Person A >>><<< Person B Triad – Person A>>>>Person B>>>>Person C This changes the reactions and perceptions of all involved Primary Groups – the groups that we are influenced the most by - they are characterized by small membership, affective bonding, and long-lasting relationships, and diffuse interaction - primary groups fulfill our expressive needs Secondary Groups – people we know, but not all that well (casual acquaintances) - they are larger in membership and the relationships are of shorter and more specific - they fulfill instrumental needs Reference Groups – groups we use to gauge or role in society - groups that are successful are used as a template for emulation (example: professional sports) - groups are also used for negative evaluations (a “bad” neighborhood) Not Groups: Crowds: numbers of people who gather in the same place at the same time for the same purpose - a person in a crowd does not know the vast majority of other people in it Aggregate: large group of people who gather in the same place for different reasons - e.g., people at a mall Social Categories: people lumped together by social scientists on the assumption they share a characteristic - e.g., middle aged, elderly, black, Asian, Hispanic, teenager, etc. Attribution Theory - we tend to attribute our own success to internal causes and failure to external causes - we attribute others success to external causes and their failures to internal causes Groupthink - groupthink begins with ethnocentrism; when we think of the world as us vs. them, we tend to view ourselves as better - xenophobia also contributes, causing us to look down on people from other groups that aren’t part of ours; outside advice becomes moot - another step is the discouragement of dissent, in which the group makes the individual feel ostracized if they dissent - groups try to maintain the appearance of unanimity, showing a solidarity and strength of the opinion within the group; split and dissension can be used against a group - “Risky Shift”: members of groups are more willing to make risky decisions Rational Choice theory - as humans, there are some groups we make a rational decision whether to join or not Exchange theory - dictate that we will weigh the cost/benefit of rational choice behaviors - benefits can be psychological, physical The Norm of Reciprocity - states that when we get something from someone, it creates an obligation to give something back - one must have obligations to groups which he/she is a member of
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ex. Friends spending time with friends maybe doing something the other person wants to do Formal Organizations - groups with governing membership, responsibility, and conduct - Utilitarian Organizations - a group we join for material rewards - Normative Organizations - groups joined for emotional/psychological rewards - Coercive Organizations - groups in which membership isn’t a choice Bureaucracy - complex, highly structured organizations Features of Bureaucracy - Weber described them as rational organizations
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seemann2 - Groups Dyad Person A >< Person B Triad Person...

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