EPL-CDW-Logical Fallacies

EPL-CDW-Logical Fallacies - Reyes FA11 English 102 Logos...

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Reyes FA11 English 102 Logos and Pathos and Ethos, Oh My! Logos Logos or the appeal to reason relies on logic or reason. Logos often depends on the use of inductive or deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning takes a specific representative case or facts and then draws generalizations or conclusions from them. Inductive reasoning must be based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence, in other words the facts you draw on must fairly represent the larger situation or population. Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization and then applies it to a specific case. The generalization you start with must have been based on a sufficient amount of reliable evidence. Ethos Ethos or the ethical appeal is based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer. There are many ways to establish good character and credibility as an author: Use only credible, reliable sources to build your argument and cite those sources properly. Respect the reader by stating the opposing position accurately. Establish common ground with your audience, often this can be done by acknowledging values and beliefs shared by those on both sides of the argument. If appropriate for the assignment, disclose why you are interested in this topic or what personal experiences you have had with the topic. Organize your argument in a logical, easy to follow manner. You can use the Toulmin method of logic or a simple pattern such as chronological order, most general to most detailed example, earliest to most recent example, etc. Proofread the argument. Too many careless grammar mistakes cast doubt on your character as a writer. Pathos Pathos or the emotional appeal appeals to an audience's needs, values, and emotional sensibilities. Argument emphasizes reason, but used properly there is often a place for emotion as well. Emotional appeals can use sources such as interviews and individual stories to paint a more legitimate and moving picture of reality or illuminate the truth. For example, telling the story of a single child who has been abused may make for a more persuasive argument than simply the number of children abused each year because it would give a human face to the numbers. *Only use an emotional appeal if it truly supports the claim you are making, not as a way to distract from the real issues of debate. An argument should never use emotion to misrepresent the topic or frighten people.*
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Reyes FA11 English 102 Avoid Logical Fallacies These are some common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Also, watch out for these slips in other people's arguments. Slippery slope: This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,. .., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur A must not be allowed to occur either. Example: If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers. In this
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EPL-CDW-Logical Fallacies - Reyes FA11 English 102 Logos...

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