11-blood phys - Lecture Physiology of Blood I Components...

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Lecture: Physiology of Blood I. Components, Characteristics, Functions of Blood A. Major Components of Blood 1. formed elements - the actual cellular components of blood (special connective tissue) a. erythrocytes - red blood cells b. leukocytes - white blood cells c. platelets - cell fragments for clotting 2. blood plasma - complex non-cellular fluid surrounding formed elements; protein & electrolytes B. Separation of Components in a Centrifuge VOLUME LAYER 1. clear/yellowish PLASMA 55% top 2. thin/whitish buffy coat <1% middle with LEUKOCYTES & PLATELETS 3. reddish mass - ERYTHROCYTES 45% bottom hematocrit - percentage by VOLUME of erythrocytes when blood is centrifuged (normal = 45%) C. Characteristics of Blood 1. bright red (oxygenated) 2. dark red/purplish (unoxygenated) 3. much more dense than pure water 4. pH range from 7.35 to 7.45 (slightly alkaline) 5. slightly warmer than body temperature 100.4 F 6. typical volume in adult male 5-6 liters 7. typical volume in adult female 4-5 liters 8. typically 8% of body weight D. Major Functions of Blood 1. Distribution & Transport a. oxygen from lungs to body cells b. carbon dioxide from body cells to lungs c. nutrients from GI tract to body cells d. nitrogenous wastes from body cells to kidneys e. hormones from glands to body cells
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2. Regulation (maintenance of homeostasis) a. maintenance of normal body pH i. blood proteins (albumin) & bicarbonate b. maintenance of circulatory/interstitial fluid i. electrolytes aid blood proteins (albumin) c. maintenance of temperature (blushed skin) 3. Protection a. platelets and proteins "seal" vessel damage b. protection from foreign material & infections i. leukocytes, antibodies, complement proteins II. Erythrocytes (red blood ells; RBCs) A. Structure 1. 7.5 micron diameter; 2.0 micron thick 2. biconcave disk shape; ideal for gas exchange i. spectrin - elastic protein; allows shape change 3. mature cells are anucleate (no nucleus) 3. very few organelles; mainly a hemoglobin carrier i. hemoglobin – 33% of cell mass; carries oxygen 5. no mitochondria; only anaerobic respiration 6. ratio erythrocytes:leukocytes = 800:1 7. red blood cell count: # cells per cubic millimeter i. normal male count - 5.1 to 5.8 million ii. normal female count - 4.3 to 5.2 million B. Functions (oxygen & carbon dioxide transport) 1. hemoglobin - large molecules with globin and hemes a. globin - complex protein with 4 polypeptides (2 alpha and 2 beta polypeptides) b. heme group - IRON containing pigment part of hemoglobin to which oxygen binds i. each polypeptide has one heme group;each heme carries one O 2 c. normal hemoglobin levels (grams/l00 ml blood) i. infants 14-20 grams/l00 ml ii adult female 12-16 grams/100 ml iii adult male 13-18 grams/l00 ml 2. states of hemoglobin a. oxyhemoglobin - when oxygen is bound to IRON b. deoxyhemoglobin - no oxygen bound to IRON c. carbaminohemoglobin - when carbon dioxide bound (to polypeptide chain) C. Hematopoiesis and Erythropoiesis
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1. hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis) - the maturation, development and formation of blood cells a. red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) - location of hematopoiesis; in blood
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