CH 12 - CH 12: Chemical Bonding Renee Y. Becker CHM 1025...

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1 CH 12: Chemical Bonding Renee Y. Becker CHM 1025 Valencia Community College
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2 Recall that an atom has core and valence electrons. Core electrons are found close to the nucleus. Valence electrons are found in the most distant s and p energy subshells. It is valence electrons that are responsible for holding two or more atoms together in a chemical bond . Chemical Bond Concept
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3 The octet rule states that atoms bind in such a way so that each atom acquires eight electrons in its outer shell. There are two ways in which an atom may achieve an octet. (a) by transfer of electrons from one atom to another (ionic bonding) (b) by sharing one or more pairs of electrons (covalent bonding) Octet Rule
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4 Ionic bonds are formed from the complete transfer of electrons between atoms to form ionic compounds. Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons to form molecular compounds. Types of Bonds
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5 An ionic bond is formed by the attraction between positively charged cations and negatively charged anions. Bonding of a metal with a non-metal Transfer of electrons from metal to non-metal This “electrostatic attraction” is similar to the attraction between opposite poles on two magnets. Ionic Bonds
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6 The ionic bonds formed from the combination of anions and cations are very strong and result in the formation of a rigid, crystalline structure. The structure for NaCl, ordinary table salt, is shown here. Ionic Bonds
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7 Cations are formed when an atom loses valence electrons to become positively charged. Most main group metals achieve a noble gas electron configuration by losing their valence electrons and are isoelectronic with a noble gas. Isoelectronic – same electron configuration Magnesium (Group IIA/2) loses its two valence electrons to become Mg 2+ . A magnesium ion has 10 electrons (12 – 2 = 10 e - ) and is isoelectronic with neon. Formation of Cations
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8 We can use electron dot formulas to look at the formation of cations. Each of the metals in Period 3 form cations by losing 1, 2, or 3 electrons, respectively. Each metal atom becomes isoelectronic with the preceding noble gas, neon. Formation of Cations
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9 Anions are formed when an atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged. Most nonmetals achieve a noble gas electron configuration by gaining electrons to become isoelectronic with a noble gas. Chlorine (Group VIIA/17) gains one valence electron and becomes Cl . A chloride ion has 18 electrons (17 + 1 = 18 e - ) and is isoelectronic with argon. Formation of Anions
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We can also use electron dot formulas to look at the formation of anions. The nonmetals in Period 3 gain 1, 2, or 3 electrons, respectively, to form anions. Each nonmetal ion is
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CH 12 - CH 12: Chemical Bonding Renee Y. Becker CHM 1025...

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