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Unformatted text preview: HyeYun Lee Test 3 Materials Cellular Respiration background o Characteristics of Life grow excitability : ability to adapt to stimuli reproduce homeostasis : steady state of conditions relative to the internal body; constantly changing concentrations of the fluids in the body metabolize o Metabolism-Greek for change specific interactions between molecules in a cellular environment - - very carefully orchestrated by enzymes which help keep homeostasis two areas Catabolism o catabolic pathways where complex organic molecule are chemically degraded to simpler subunits with the release of energy o energy is used to drive the anabolic processes o ex. cellular respiration C 6 H 2 O 6 +6O 2 6CO 2 +6H 2 O+ATP o isomers : have same number of atoms but different structures ex. glucose, fructose, galactose Anabolism o take subunits and create larger organic molecules o energy must be put into the reaction o ex. photosynthesis 6CO 2 +12H 2 O (with the addition of sunlight) C 6 H 2 O 6 +6O 2 +6H 2 O o anabolic steroids work by increasing amino acid uptake in body cells o Energy matter : anything that has mass and takes up space energy : the ability to move matter against some force two laws of thermodynamics-therme-heat-dunamics-power Law of Conservation of Energy o energy cant be destroyed or created, only transferred or transformed 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics o when energy is transferred/transformed, entropy (the quantitative measure of the disorder in a system) increases, while the amount of useful energy decreases living systems must use energy to keep their systems ordered heat : energy involved with random molecular motion o types of energy potential energy : energy of position or configurationmay come locked in chemical bonds chemical: when energy is absorbed, the electrons are bumped out to higher levels, when energy is released, electrons move down energy levels kinetic energy : energy of motion free energy : energy used to do work in a system when temperature and pressure remain constant o Chemistry rearranging atoms in a molecule as old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in the body, the molecules have kinetic energy, which lead to collisions which can provide the activation energy for a reaction free energy 1 HyeYun Lee G= H-T S o G: change in free energy o H is Change in total Energy o T is temperature o S is Change in Entropy Exergonic vs. Endogonic exergonic or exothermic : result in a net release of free energy; spontaneous-G is negative endergonic...
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