Bill Exam - Biology EXAM TEST ONE MATERIAL Galileo Pope...

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Biology EXAM TEST ONE MATERIAL Galileo Tried to prove the heliocentric theory, introduced by Copernicus, and was accused of heresy and forced to go to court, where Inquisitors made him say that he “abjured, cursed, and detested his erroneous claim that the earth moved around the sun.” Pope Gregory IX Tried to combat heresy, and accused Galileo Explain the church’s reasoning behind accusing Galileo They believed that only deductive reasoning was sound because measurements depended on senses, which could be fooled. Galileo methods were by research, studies, and telescope measurements Aristotelian logic Deducted reasoning; using deductive reasoning and established truths to find less obvious truths Deductive syllogism Major premise: “if”, minor premise: “then”, conclusion: “therefore” Epiphyte A plant that grows on another plant Creationism God created everything and nothing has changed (vs. evolution) Evolution - Changes in living things over time - change in gene pool frequencies of a species - theory that best explains diversity - unifies all of biology (micro, macro, etc.) - from Latin term “elute,” (unrolling) Theodosius Dobzhansky Imminent population geneticist; “nothing in biology makes any sense except in the light of evolution” Microevolution Changes in population gene pools and allelic frequencies over time Plato Idealism, or Essentialism; a world of imperfection, deception, allusion; one ideal & true Aristotle - most famous student of Plato - questioned Plato’s theory - Naturalist who believed living things ranged from simple to complex and could be displayed on a ladder, scala naturae (scale of complexity) - Proposed theory of immutable species, which persisted for about 200 yrs. because it was supported by Old Testament & teachings of church Immutable species Species that don’t change and remain in the form God created them in Scientific method Scientists formulate questions; Galileo’s method of data-collecting was an early form of this Roger Bacon Advocated and developed use of scientific method; said “cease to be ruled by dogmas and authority! Look at the world!” Inductive reasoning Scientific thinking process that start from specific observations and then create general concept Carolus Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy; binomial nomenclature - studied nature to find God’s plan (natural theology) - published botanical & zoological accounts “species planterum” & “systema natura” - his theories helped Darwin Binomial nomenclature - Generic name + specific epithet - Used Greek and Latin Georges Cuvier - Father of paleontology - Studied Paris Basin strata and found fossils from different periods - Didn’t believe in evolution, but in immutable species - Believed immutable species were obtained because of mass extinctions caused by great catastrophes Catastrophism Natural disasters caused extinction and opened up space for new animals from different regions James Hutton Scottish geologist that proposed the principle of gradualism Gradualism
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.

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Bill Exam - Biology EXAM TEST ONE MATERIAL Galileo Pope...

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