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Unformatted text preview: 1 August 29, 2007 DARWIN AND EVOLUTION Galileo- Taught the heliocentric theory (proposed by Nicolas Copernicus [Polish]) that stated the earth and planets revolve around the sun- Had been trying to prove the Copernican theory with his astrological observations, contradicted the church- Was summoned to court before Pope Gregory IX (who instituted the Papal Inquisition) in 1663 (he was about 69 years old) to be tried for heresy due to his teachings, was forced to recant his erroneous claim that the earth moved around the sun 1. Said to have left the room with his head bowed in submission but muttering nonetheless it moves speaking of the earth 2. Put on house arrest for the rest of his life Papists used Aristotelian logic- Also called deductive logic- Based on established truths (common knowledge) - A conclusion is deduced from them, which is fine except sometimes the established truths were false Deductive Syllogism- 1. If statement- 2. then statement- 3. Therefore statement (ex. If all birds have wings, then if you can conclude that sparrows are birds, you would therefore conclude that sparrows have wings-whether youve seen a sparrow before or not)- Syllogism includes a major premise (if), a minor premise (then), and a conclusion(therefore) Galileo was one of the first people known to use the scientific method extensively Taxonomists- Developed since Galileos time- Scientists who group and classify living things- Identified over 1 and half million species of living things Where did this great diversity come from? - Major question in Contemporary Biology 2- Creationism (everything on earth and/or in the universe was made by some sort of deity and not by scientific processes)- Evolution (changes in population gene or allelic frequencies over time) 1. Theodosius Dobzhansky- Nothing in Biology makes any sense except in the light of evolution. 2. Theres evidence that 3.5-3.8 billion years ago there were simple life forms on the earth that gave rise to bigger life forms on the earth 3. Contradiction, Dichotomy of Life : if everythings supposed to have biological unity, how did we get such diversity now? 4. Many of the chemical molecules that bind us to other living things are common Pre-Darwinian Ideas- Greek Philosophers: 1. Plato (427-347 BC)believed that there were 2 worlds- 1. A real ideal and eternal world(like heaven)- 2. A world that was illusionary, imperfect, and perceived by the senses (our world) - Believed that variations in plants and animals are nothing more than imperfections of ideal forms, this became known as Idealism or Essentialism, ruled out Evolution 2. Aristotle (384-322 BC, Platos student) questioned the two-world theory of Plato- His philosophy excluded evolution completely- Different from Plato in that he was a Naturalist (interacted with the natural world) - Perceived that living things progressed from those that were very simple to others that were...
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