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Statistics Laboratory
Michael Waites
Biology 201
10:00
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View Full Document Introduction:
Without our knowing, statistics has become an inseparable part of
our everyday lives.
Statistics are reflected in common conversations when using the
common phrases “How likely is…” or “What are the odds that…”
Statistics and
probability first arose in simple games played by the Egyptians around 3000 B.C.
These
games of chance continued through the centuries while being studied extensively by
mathematicians such as Galileo, Fermat, Pascal, and De Moivre.
“It was not until later in
the seventeenth century that James Bernoulli transformed what was then known about the
operation of chance from a guide for wagering to a true mathematical theory [of
probability]” (Everitt, 11).
From the word itself, we can see the first uses of statistics for
state and census matters.
Statistics and probability were then used to analyze various
aspects of life, such as the chance of catching a disease of the likelihood of harvesting a
certain crop.
“In the twentieth century, statistics has become known as the mathematical
tool for analyzing experimental and observational data” (Everitt, 13).
Statistics covers a
broad, varied range of data and information, but for this lab we will focus on the use of t
tests, Chi Square tests, product moment correlation tests, and simple linear regression
tests.
Methods and Materials:
To begin this lab, our class first conducted a simple coin
toss test.
To conduct this test, first a member of the lab group was chosen to conduct the
test.
This member balanced a standard mint quarter on her right thumb, flipping it up
with her right index finger.
The coin rotated many times in the air and as it descended,
she caught the coin in her right hand and turned it over onto her left hand.
She then
observed the quarter, noting if it landed on heads or tails.
The member underwent this
process ten times, recording the results each time.
After this was complete, she then
flipped the quarter in the same fashion one hundred times, recording the results each
time.
In Biology 201 lab, the instructor then recorded the results of the one hundred toss
for each of four groups.
We were then told to take this data and, adding the results,
calculate the results for a four hundred coin toss.
These three tests were recorded and
tabulated.
Then, because the data was a nominal scale of measure, we performed the Chi
Square using notes, pen, and paper.
The Chi Square equation is as follows:
Σ
(observed valueexpected value)
2
/(expected value)
To find the critical value for the Chi Square test, we used the Chi Square critical value
table provided by the instructor.
Using this table, we used the alpha value for a two
tailed test of .05.
To conduct the genetic cross test, we used information provided by the instructor
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.
 Spring '11
 Smith
 Biology

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