Energetics and Cell Respiration

Energetics and Cell Respiration - Life is the quality that...

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Life is the quality that distinguishes a vital and functional being from a dead body Dead is deprived of life, having died Metabolism- critical for Life - metabolism comes about because of specific interactions among molecules within a cellular environment -Metabolism- involving total chemical/biochemical processes that occur in an organism’s body -Enzymes and Homeostasis -enzymes help to control homeostasis -homeostasis- uniform, steady state within our body -ex. Drinking salt water would disrupt osmotic properties -eating bananas gives potassium, electrolytes -saline solution mixed with electrolytes compatible with internal conditions -Catabolism- degradation process -energy in molecules is extracted - Catabolic Pathway - involves degradation of some organic molecule into its simple building block subunits - energy is released -cell respiration is the major catabolic pathway - C6H12O6 + 6O2 yields 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP -Glucose- Structure - ring is the most common form in living systems -aldehyde structure -Anabolism- synthesis process -building up larger organic molecules -Anabolic Pathway- Photosynthesis -take subunits and, with energy, combine them together to form a complex molecule -Anabolic Steroids -Energy released through catabolic reactions is used to drive anabolic reactions Bioenergetics -how organisms manage their energy resources -energy- ability to perform some kind of work- moving matter against some opposing force -Basic Laws of Energy- Laws of Thermodynamics “thermi”-heat “dunamis”-power -Law of Conservation of Energy- energy cannot be created nor destroyed; it is only transferred or transformed -Second Law- there is no 100% complete transformation of energy; some left over, that energy is going to increase the amount of disorder -A quantitative measurement of disorder is entropy -Living things are highly ordered and need a constant input of energy
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-Two Forms of Energy -potential energy- energy of position relative to the surface of the Earth; energy of configuration (of chemical bonds that make up organic molecules) -kinetic energy- energy of motion -interconnected back and forth within a system - -matter- anything that has mass and takes up space Chemical Reactions and Higher Energy Levels - molecules must absorb energy to break bonds, release energy to create bonds -in order for a reaction to occur, molecules must collide with enough force to break old bonds and form new bonds -Spontaneous reaction- occur on their own for reaction, just need reactants and the process is carried out to completion -changes in free energy -Free energy- energy available to perform work in a system when the temperature and pressure are constant throughout the system -Free energy (delta G)= delta H (enthalpy) minus T (temperature in degrees Kelvin) delta S (entropy) -Enthalpy- total potential energy in a biological system -Entropy- energy lost in a system Exergonic Reaction - - energy of activation- energy required to make reactants form “unstable bonds”
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina Upstate.

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Energetics and Cell Respiration - Life is the quality that...

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