Introduction – 1633 –
– in late 60s standing in the courtroom where
the papal inquisitors formed charges against him where they humiliated him
and Galileo was seething with rage.
They gave him a piece of paper and said
that they would read those words, that he would abjure, that he renounced,
cursed, and detested his erroneous claim that the earth moved around the sun.
He had read
’ things; he proposed the heliocentric theory, which
suggests that the earth and the planets revolve around the sun.
This is a
problem b/c the teaching of the church said that the earth was the center of the
We made a mistake in that he tried to prove this theory with his
telescopes and stuff.
Pope Gregory the 9
was the one that instituted the
inquisition to combat heresy in the church.
Would try to
discourage you from thinking this way against the church by burning you at
the stake or cut your head off or stone you.
Galileo was forced to recant what
He left muttering these words; “none the less it moves!”
Part of this
problem was just the thinking of the times, implemented a type of logic from
This type of thinking is known as the deductive process, which is
fine if the things already known are accurate.
Begin with these truths:
deductive always involves
Often referred to as
The if statement in your deductive
syllogism is the hypothesis.
In the early 1600s, the church controlled
everything that people thought and what not.
was the only
way to get at the truth.
The church leaders believed that observation depends
on the visual sense.
Your visual sense will let you see what is up there in the
heavens and they believe that our senses can mislead us.
They may say if god
created perfect heavenly bodies, then the moon is in the heavens, therefore the
moon must be a perfect creation.
While Galileo saw all these dark places and
such are craters, we know that the moon isn’t perfect because there are craters.
The major premises, minor premises, and conclusion.
It may be logical, but
Since Galileo’s time, scientists have been forming questions about the
universe; all these questions lead to other questions.
There are over a million and a half living things on this earth, 750,000
That is only 20% of the living life forms on this earth; we haven’t
discovered 80% yet.
Where did all these life forms come from?
Diversity means variation, differences among things.
A strict fundamentalist
would say that these things were created by God and put on this earth roughly
6,000 years ago.
A biologist would say
Derived from Latin word
evolute, means unrolling.
Changes that have taken place in living things over
geologic time, billions of years, is evolution.
An earth that was very different
in which life form appeared, 3.5-3.8 billion years ago.
This has given rise to