Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST I(2)

Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST I(2) - TEST I I. II....

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TEST I I. Introduction – 1633 – Galileo – in late 60s standing in the courtroom where the papal inquisitors formed charges against him where they humiliated him and Galileo was seething with rage. They gave him a piece of paper and said that they would read those words, that he would abjure, that he renounced, cursed, and detested his erroneous claim that the earth moved around the sun. He had read Copernicus ’ things; he proposed the heliocentric theory, which suggests that the earth and the planets revolve around the sun. This is a problem b/c the teaching of the church said that the earth was the center of the universe. We made a mistake in that he tried to prove this theory with his telescopes and stuff. Pope Gregory the 9 th was the one that instituted the inquisition to combat heresy in the church. The pagas? Would try to discourage you from thinking this way against the church by burning you at the stake or cut your head off or stone you. Galileo was forced to recant what he said. He left muttering these words; “none the less it moves!” Part of this problem was just the thinking of the times, implemented a type of logic from Aristotle . This type of thinking is known as the deductive process, which is fine if the things already known are accurate. Begin with these truths: deductive always involves if statement, then statement, therefore statement. Often referred to as deductive syllogism . The if statement in your deductive syllogism is the hypothesis. In the early 1600s, the church controlled everything that people thought and what not. Aristotelian logic was the only way to get at the truth. The church leaders believed that observation depends on the visual sense. Your visual sense will let you see what is up there in the heavens and they believe that our senses can mislead us. They may say if god created perfect heavenly bodies, then the moon is in the heavens, therefore the moon must be a perfect creation. While Galileo saw all these dark places and such are craters, we know that the moon isn’t perfect because there are craters. The major premises, minor premises, and conclusion. It may be logical, but long. Since Galileo’s time, scientists have been forming questions about the universe; all these questions lead to other questions. Taxonomists classify things. There are over a million and a half living things on this earth, 750,000 are insects. That is only 20% of the living life forms on this earth; we haven’t discovered 80% yet. Where did all these life forms come from? II. Diversity means variation, differences among things. A strict fundamentalist would say that these things were created by God and put on this earth roughly 6,000 years ago. A biologist would say evolution. Derived from Latin word evolute, means unrolling. Changes that have taken place in living things over geologic time, billions of years, is evolution. An earth that was very different in which life form appeared, 3.5-3.8 billion years ago. This has given rise to
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Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST I(2) - TEST I I. II....

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