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Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST II

Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST II - TEST II I Evolution...

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TEST II Evolution of species – where do species come from? Think about the term species, there is nothing called a specie, species is singular or plural, species has come about b/c of ppl like Linnaeus who want to try and organize the world. Older son’s bedroom – messy and dirty, this organization has led us to in biological sciences to place animals and plants in similar groups, taxonomic groups, there is still variation among groups. It doesn’t take scientists to perceive scientists among different things; primitive groups can do this as well. Ernst Mayr was an evolutionary biologist who studied birds at Harvard and in 1927, he led scientists to New Guinea, went to Arafak mountains and talked to tribes to find different names of birds, came up with about 137 names for different birds. So they then went out to collect birds and found out that they came up with 138 names, so these untrained primitive ppl had only confused 1 species or scientists did so, so this is indicative that all of us can see the differences in living forms. The term species has gone thru its own kind of evolutionary process when we think back to time of Aristotle, typological species was then and it was held in common by ppl, but we have already learned not the believe this, it is a static unified immutable form that is defined by a place and lives in real/ideal/eternal world. So, needless to say this went away. Now we look at morphological species – the morpho species, this is where we thank Linnaeus, this concept was used by L to put together his thing in the 1750s, looking at physical shape or w/e and grouping it, this process is ok except for situations where we have a lot of intraspecific variation . When the variation among species is greater than variation between species, we have a problem. Most scientists use this today more than any other kind. The third one is proposed by Mayr in 1942. Biological species – things are changing, ppl are challenging issues, it isn’t as well accepted today as it was b/c there are clear deviations, but it is a genetically distinct group of natural populations that share a common gene pool and are reproductively isolated from other such similar groups. They key here is reproductive isolation. I. The term biological species was defined where he said that the biological species is reproductively isolated, etc. This is important because there could be some species that are similar in terms of color so it may be hard to separate them, the physiology or ecology or behavior could be similar, but they are reproductively isolated, a cessation or termination of gene flow helps determine different species. Conspecifics – this means that a species is reproductive compatible, even if they are located geographically apart from each other. Intraspecific – refers to situations or encounters that occur within a species. You may have a bird feeder at home, and a white throated sparrow is on it and another one comes, the original one bites at the other one. This is an intraspecific agonistic or aggressive encounter over food.
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