Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST III

Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST III - TEST III I. Cell...

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TEST III Cell Respiration – talk about energy transformations. Life – the quality that distinguishes a vital and functional being from a dead body. This doesn’t help much. Death – dead is deprived of life, having died, etc. It’s almost like circular reasoning in defining life and death, this has plagued scientists for a long time, today we list a number of characteristics that will help us describe life, so if we talk about a living thing, 1. It must grow, 2. Have the ability to respond in an adaptive way to stimuli in the environment, 3. Reproducing and 4. Have metabolism. Bear in mind we talk about a human or an amoeba, they both have the same kind of characteristics. When we talk about metabolism, this is a process that comes about because of specific interactions b/t molecules in the environment. Metabolism – the total of all biochemical processes that take place in a living thing, change. This doesn’t run on with its own momentum, it is controlled carefully by a special group of chemicals, enzymes . There are 2 subdivisions of metabolism, 1. Catabolism – talk about catabolic pathways where a complex organic molecule is going to be degraded or chemically broken down into simpler subunits, but during this process, we are going to release energy along the way, this will be used to drive other cellular reactions. Cell Respiration is one way that this happens: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 yields 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP. The 6 waters is called metabolic water. The C6H12O6 is also the molecular formula of sucrose and fructose, they are isomers. The straight chain is the aldehyde form, it is soluble and polar but the ring structure is the most prevalent in living systems. It’s not enough to use the molecular formula to see the difference between the sugars. 2. Anabolism – Anabolic pathways – take these subunits, hook them together chemically and take larger organic molecules, for bonds using energy, energy requiring process. Ex: photosynthesis and protein synthesis. Cell Respiration can be described in a summary equation, the one above, for photosynthesis the summary equation is 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O yields with light Chlorophyll, yields C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O. This looks like it can be reversed but it can’t, so the evolutionary significance b/t these 2, the catabolic pathways provide the energy to drive the anabolic pathways. Anabolic steroids – have been around for a long time, they have been used by medical doctors for things and they have been used for inappropriate ways, they have been a part of weight lifting for some ppl. I. We are going to spend our time talking about catabolic pathways. Energy relationships – a study of how living organisms manage their energy resources. Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space. Energy – usually is the ability to form work, usually it is against a force, and the force could be gravity or friction. As we talk about this area of energy, we want to talk about 2 laws of Thermodynamics. Thermo comes from Greek word
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Biology 201 Notes - Whitney - TEST III - TEST III I. Cell...

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